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VOL. XII. 1894. 




L I 

v.i a 

The Council of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 
desire it to be known that the Authors alone are responsible for 
any statements or opinions contained in their contributions to 
the Transactions of the Society. 

This volume is edited by Mr. Charles W. Sutton. 




W. E. A. AXON, F.R.S.L. 







Lieut. -Colonel FISHWICK, F.S.A. 


tbe Council. 






Rev. E. F. LETTS, M.A. 





Ibonorarg Secretary 



May 3rd. Didsbury. 

June i6th. Ince Blundell Hall and Sephton Church. 
July 7th. Birkenhead Priory and Bidston Church. 
August i8th. Bollington and Rainow. 

September 8th. Turton : Ancient Stone Circles on Chetham's 

October 1 3 th. Wardley Hall. 

No meeting was held at Whitsuntide. 

Meetings for the Reading of Papers, Discussions, and Exhibition 
of Antiquities were held monthly during the winter session in the 
Chetham College, Manchester, and a special meeting was held on 
November 2Qth at the Manchester Town Hall. 




William Harrison i 


STONYHURST, LANCASHIRE. By the Rev. J. R. Luck, S.J. 30 


J. French - 4 2 




Gradwell 101 


APPENDIX I. By John Hibbert Swann : 


BIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894 148 








RULES - 179 


INDEX ------- 195 
















- 26 



- 5 

- 122 

- 139 



AMONG the symbols devised by a committee of the 
Society of Antiquaries for use in the proposed 
county maps of the mediaeval period there are included 
one to denote " ancient bridges," and another to denote 
" fords." As such a map will, I hope, be prepared for 
our two counties as soon as the Archaeological Map now 
in the press is fairly completed, it is not too early to be 
getting together the material upon which it is to be 
founded. As one step in that direction I propose to 
collect in this paper what is known in regard to the 
two items I have mentioned, and to include with them 
another not provided for in the scheme, but which, never- 
theless, in Lancashire, at least, ought not to be left out, 
viz., the ancient ferries. Fords, ferries, and bridges 
exhaust amongst them all the possible modes of crossing 
rivers in ancient times, when there were no Mersey 
tunnels, and, so far as we are aware; no anticipations 
of that coming wonder, the flying machine. 

*For the illustrations to this paper the Society is indebted to Mr. 
G; H. Rowbotham. 


At the present day it is so rare to find a highway 
unprovided with a substantial bridge at the crossing of 
even a small brook that we are apt to forget how much 
a matter of course it was for our forefathers, in not 
very remote times, to find constant obstacles to their 
journeyings in the flowing streams. The brook which 

By twenty thorps, a little town, 
And half a hundred bridges, 

though it does run on for ever, is not the same brook 
in its circumstances as the one which our ancestors 
knew. Their experience led them to think little of 
fording brooks or, in ordinary summer weather, even 
the larger rivers in many places. As Jacob of old passed 
over the ford Jabbok (Genesis xxxii. 22) ; as the fords of 
Jordan were used by the men of Jericho (Joshua ii. 7) ; 
as Queen Guinevere 

A single maiden with her 
Took horse and forded Usk, and gained the wood ; 

and as Prince Geraint, immediately afterwards, "Came 
quickly flashing thro' the shallow ford," so did our 
fathers continue to cross the streams in their journeys 
until quite modern times. The experience of ages had 
taught them the most suitable spots for the purpose, 
where the river was shallow and broad and had a gravelly 
or stony bottom, and no doubt the foundation of many 
villages and towns was due to the existence of such con- 
venient places for passing, for, as we shall see illustrated 
in our own county, the word "ford" often enters as a 
component part into the names of places. This fact 
alone is very significant. "Nothing," says Canon Taylor 
(Words and Places, second edition, p. 253), "shews more 
conclusively the unbridged state of the streams than the 


fact that, where the great lines of Roman road are inter- 
sected by rivers, we so frequently find important towns 
bearing the Saxon suffix 'ford.' ' 

But the fords were not always equally passable. In 
times of flood, "when the waters were out," as the phrase 
went, and the stream came raging down, the perils of 
travel became very real. The expectant maiden of In 
Memoriam, when she found 

Her future lord 
Was drown'd in passing through the ford, 

experienced no uncommon sorrow. Nor even in 
ordinary times were the fords always safe, for ex- 
cessive traffic sometimes led to their becoming cut 
up and worn. Of this we have an illustration in 
the Kenyon papers recently published by the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission. In 1632 the quarter sessions 
at Preston made an order levying a tax of two- 
fifteenths on the hundred of Blackburn towards building 
a stone bridge over the Calder at Fenysford, near 
Whalley, voluntary contributions having been made in 
aid, and its preamble sets forth that the river is "very 
often (especially in the winter season) soe great that 
there is no passage for man or horse, and many attempting 
at such times to passe have been clrouned, and almost 
daylie some persons are there putt in danger of their 
lives, and have their loaJes and carriages drowned and 
lost, and that the said ford is of late years so worne and 
groune so rocky that in short time it is thought will 
become altogether impassable, being almost impossible 
to be amended by the charge and labour of man." 

We need not then be surprised that even in very 
remote times the provision and maintenance of bridges 
was regarded as one of the most important social duties. 


So early as the beginning of the seventh century we find 
the repair of bridges placed among the trinoda necessitas, the 
three burdens of such paramount necessity that even 
the owners of boc land, privileged from all else, were not 
exempt from them. In the ancient penitential of St. 
Dunstan the building of bridges is included amongst 
the duties of charity which the rich owe to the poor 
(Transactions, v. 175). Although we never meet in 
England with traces of the Bridge Friars or Pontifex 
Brothers, who in France built bridges, and set up 
establishments provided with boats on the shores of 
streams, works of this kind were encouraged here by the 
grant of indulgences to those who helped by their gifts or 
by their bodily labour in the repair of bridges. There 
were also gilds who undertook this duty, the members of 
the fraternity taking it in turns to attend daily to keep 
the bridges clean. Sometimes, as at Bow, an endowment 
was created, though not always was the income properly 
administered. Sometimes a toll was imposed under a 
grant made by the king. The right of imposing this toll 
was called brudtholl or pontage. Local examples of it 
we shall find presently. Sometimes voluntary offerings 
were collected by a priest, who occupied a little chapel 
on the bridge, where the faithful could halt for a few 
moments for giving of thanks, and where mass was said 
at dawn. All those various means, however, proved in 
many cases ineffectual to secure the proper repair of the 
bridge. Endowments were misappropriated, the re- 
cipients of offerings came to consider receiving as their 
only duty, and sometimes the funds, even when honestly 
administered, proved insufficient for the purpose, and so 
not infrequently the bridge fell into ruin. 

Many of the old bridges were built with triangular 
recesses for the safety of passengers, a very necessary 


precaution when the way was so narrow as to barely 
allow room for a cart. The improvements of the last 
hundred years have resulted in the removal of many of 
those old bridges to give place to modern ones, not so 
picturesque, perhaps, but certainly more spacious and 
more safe. In Lancashire the number of additional 
bridges erected since the middle of the seventeenth 
century must be very great. There was previously a 
great deficiency. A general Act passed in 1670 makes 
special provision for Lancashire and Cheshire. It 
recites that in these counties there are many and sundry 
great and deep rivers, which run cross and through the 
common and public highways and roads, which many 
times cannot be passed over without hazard and loss of 
the lives and goods of the inhabitants and travellers for 
want of convenient, good, and sufficient bridges. The 
justices were accordingly empowered, during the next 
ten years only, to rebuild new bridges, and to repair or 
rebuild such as were demolished in the late war. From 
this latter it would seem that some, at any rate, of the 
demolished bridges had not up to then been rebuilt. 

In time of war fords and bridges have played a great 
part, as the possession of them has been naturally of great 
importance. From the earliest times since Ehud and 
his followers took the fords of Jordan towards Moab, 
and suffered not a man to pass over (Judges iii. 28); 
since the Gileadites secured the passages of Jordan in 
their contest with the Ephraimites (Judges xii. 5) ; and 
since Horatius kept the bridge at Rome the possession 
of fords and bridges has been the key to the defence of 
many a city and province, for 

If they once may win the bridge, 
What hope to save the town ? 


Where the erection of a bridge was impracticable, we 
often find a ferry in existence. The word "ferry" may 
mean either the boat used for conveying passengers 
across the river, or the place where the boats pass over, 
or the legal right to maintain such a boat and levy tolls 
for its use. Such a right conferred by charter from the 
sovereign was exclusive, and conferred a monopoly within 
the prescribed limits, and therefore tended to become a 
very valuable possession. It was often granted by the 
king with the intention of conferring a royal favour on 
the grantee. Sometimes this is broadly stated, though 
more often one is left to read it between the lines, 
expressing the benefit which is being conferred on the 
people generally in providing the means of passage. 
The grant is sometimes expressed to be made " for 
the love of God." And, indeed, the right did imply a 
corresponding duty that of keeping up a boat which 
the public were entitled to use at reasonable times on 
payment of reasonable tolls. Sometimes the mere pos- 
session of lands on both sides of a stream without any 
charter enabled a private owner to stipulate for a toll 
or rent for the right of passage. 

In dealing with the local fords, ferries, and bridges, I 
propose to follow the principal rivers from their mouths 
upwards, noting by the way what information I have 
been able to collect from various sources. These sources 
I need not now stop to indicate, except in one case. In 
1781 an Enumeration of all the Public Bridges in the 
Hundred of Salford was made for the information of the 
Justices by Mr. Edmond Holme, the Bridgemaster, and 
to this I am indebted for many of the particulars given 



We begin then with the Mersey at Liverpool. Here 
there is, of course, no question of either ford or bridge, 
but the ferry is not lacking, and, as the right to it was 
litigated between the years 1837 and 1840, there is 
abundant information about it in the record of the action 
(Pirn v. Curell) in the sixth volume of Meeson and 
Welsby's Reports at page 234. Here we learn from 
Letters Patent, dated 1318, that there was previously 
existing a common passage from the vill of Liverpool to 
the priory of Birkenhead, over the arm of the sea there, 
and that the men intending to pass over had hitherto 
been obliged to turn aside to the priory because there 
was not any inn for their entertainment, whereby the 
priory was burdened beyond its means by the exercise 
of the necessary hospitality. The king (Edward II.), 
therefore, granted to the prior and convent his royal 
licence to erect there an inn or house of entertainment 
for the benefit of the passengers. Those who like to find 
a close connection between the Church and the liquor 
interest, between Beer and Bible, will perhaps think they 
have here a very early example of it. Thirteen years 
later (A.D. 1331) King Edward III. "willing," as the 
charter says, " to do the said Prior and Convent a more 
abundant favour and for the benefit of those wishing to 
pass over by water there" (notice the double motive 
probably we are not wrong in concluding that the favour 
to the convent was the more potent reason for the 
charter) granted to the said prior and convent that they 
and their successors for ever might have the same passage 
across the said arm of the sea as well for men as for 
horses and all other things whatsoever, and that they 
might receive for that passage as reasonably might be 


done, i.e., might take reasonable tolls. The right of ferry 
conferred by this grant is exercised to the present day, 
but the action above referred to settled that it was exer- 
cisable one way only, viz., from Birkenhead to Liverpool. 
A right of ferry from Liverpool to Birkenhead appears to 
have been in existence at an even earlier date and be- 
longed to the lords of Liverpool. An account rendered 
in the year 1256 by the bailiff includes an item of - 10 "for 
the town of Liverpool, with toll, stallage, passage, &c." 
In 1296 the Inquisitio post mortem of the Lord Edmund, 
brother of the King Edward I., found that he died 
possessed of (among other things) "passagium ultra 
Mersey." In 1349 the k m g's minister accounts for "the 
passage of a boat, &c.," and a lease of 1485, by the 
Duchy of Lancaster, describes the ferry as "the passage 
or ferry over the water of Mersey between the town of 
Liverpool and the County of Chester parcel of the Duchy 
of Lancaster together with the boat and all other profits 
issues and emoluments to the same passage or ferry apper- 
taining or in any manner belonging." From Eastham 
to Liverpool was a ferry belonging to the Abbey of St. 
Werburgh at Chester, and which, after the Dissolution, 
was granted with the manor of Eastham to the Stanleys. 
There may also have been at some time a ferry between 
Hale and Ince. 

Passing up the river we come next to Runcorn Gap. 
Here the river is or was fordable at low water. Thomp- 
son Watkin in his Roman Lancashire (p. 88) speaks of a 
trajectus from Ditton or Widnes to Runcorn, to com- 
municate with the Roman camp at Halton, but gives 
no authority for its existence, and in Roman Cheshire 
he makes no reference whatever to it. The earliest 
authenticated reference to the crossing is in a charter of 
the twelfth century, by which Richard de More granted 


to his son W'goon two bovates of land in Roncover 
(Runcorn) and a toft and croft in Widnesse rendering a 
yearly rent to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of 
Jerusalem and finding half the necessaries for the passage 
of the ship of Widnesse for ever for all who should pass 
over there in the love of God. The ferry it appears had 
previously been established by John Fitz Richard, whose 
death took place in 1190.* By another charter, in 1190, 
the grand prior of the English brotherhood of the 
Knights Hospitallers granted lands to Richard de la 
More in consideration of a rent and of his keeping in 
repair on the River Mersey at Runcorn the vessel which 
John, constable of Chester, for the love of God had 
formerly provided to carry across the stream those who 
desired it. Here again we have it assumed as a laudable 
and charitable thing to keep up the ferry boat, but the 
prior did not forget to stipulate that one-third part of 
the chattels of the grantee and his heirs in succession, 
at the death of each, was to go to the brotherhood for 
the good of his soul. In connection with this ferry there 
is a romantic story of "Will the Ferryman," preserved 
by an old ballad, which appeared in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for June, 1758, and is given in Nickson's 
History of Runcorn, pp. 142 and 143. 

A little higher up the river we come to "Fiddler's 
Ferry," in Penketh, which is probably ancient. Three 
miles higher up we reach Warrington, where we find the 
first regular ford and the first bridge, two circumstances 
which have made the site one of great importance for 
military purposes. According to Mr. W. A. Hulton, the 
very name of the place indicates a ford. Speaking of the 
Lancashire district, in his Penwortham Priory (Chet. 

* Beamont's Halton, pp. 15, 16, 88; Nickson's Runcorn, pp. 136, 144. 


Soc., vol. xxx.), he says: "Three important rivers flowing 
from east to west intersect it and empty themselves into 
the Irish Sea. At the precise point on each of those 
rivers, where the first available ford is found, a local name 
is discovered into the composition of which the term 
'werid' enters. Two of these places still retain the word 
with a Saxon suffix, denoting the progress of civilisation. 
And the Britannico-Saxon names of Werid-ton and Pen- 
werid-ham have come down to our days slightly changed 
into Warrington and Penwortham. While Caer-werid, or 
the camp of the ford on the Lune, suffered but a slight 
change in the hands of its Norman possessors when it 
was translated into the camp of the Lune and became 
Lancaster." In a footnote Mr. Hulton reminds us that 
the name Caer Weridd is found in Camden. 

During the Roman occupation and through all the 
Saxon period the passage at Warrington was effected by 
a ford, which, according to Mr. Beamont, entered the 
river at a point opposite Wash Lane in Latchford.* 

"This pass over the Mersey," says Whitaker,t "was 
at the extremity of some flat pastures that are called 
Broad Howley, and led directly into the village, which 
from it is denominated Latchford. It was formed by 
a shallow of gravel on a bed of marie, was about 
thirty yards in width, and had frequently in a dry 
summer not more than two feet of water upon it." 
The current of opinion, however, at the present day 
leans to the belief that the Roman road crossed close 
by the existing bridge. At the latter end of the 
twelfth century a ferry boat was probably established. 
About 1 195 Randle Blundeville by charter granted the 

* Beamont, Annals of the Lords of Warrington, p. 364. 
f Hist. Manchester, vol. i., pp. 154, 211. 


right of passage over the river between Thelwall and 
Runcorn to Hugh Boydel. The ancient ford with its 
boat continued for some time to be the only mode of 
passage, but before 1305 a bridge had been built near the 
site of the present one, for it is mentioned in several 
charters of 1305, 1308, and 1310.* It was probably 
constructed of wood, but before 1364 it had perished. 
Royal authority to rebuild was then given to Sir John 
Boteler, the lord of the manor, and others associated 
with him who were willing to give time and money for 
such a work, and the old bridge was then probably 
replaced by a more substantial structure of stone (Rymer's 
Foedera, iii., 740, 741). Another Boteler, who died in 
1420, left by his will twenty marks expressly for the 
repair of the bridge of Warrington. In 1453, at the 
instance probably of another Boteler, an indulgence was 
granted to all Christian people who should contribute, 
bequeath, or assign some part of their goods, or extend 
a helping hand toward the great and costly work of 
building and erecting anew at Warrington the bridge 
over the great and rapid water commonly called the 
Merce, "which flows in a swift course to and from the 
sea," and which both for the inhabitants and strangers 
who had occasion to travel that way was troublesome 
and dangerous to cross. t In 1479, when the bridge 
once more needed repair, letters of indulgence to all who 
would contribute were again issued. J The erection of 
the new substantial stone bridge, on the occasion of King 
Henry VII. 's visit to Lancashire in 1495, is a well known 
fact in the history of the county. After Preston battle, in 
1648, the Duke of Hamilton's defeated army possessed 
the bridge, and on Cromwell's arrival desired some capitu- 

*Beamont, 365, 133. -\Ibid, 278. \Ibid, 336. 


lation. " To which," says Cromwell (Letter Ixiv., Carlyle), 
" I yielded. Considering the strength of the pass, and 
that I could not go over the river within 10 miles of 
Warringtoh with the army, I gave him these terms," &c. 

In 1745, in the expectation of the Jacobite prince 
coming this way, the two middle arches were destroyed. 
Beppy Byrom in her "Journal," under date November 
25th, says: "This day there are men pulling up Warring- 
ton Bridge." The contract for the rebuilding in 1746 
is referred to by Mr. Earwaker in Transactions, v. 261. It 
included the erection of a watchhouse and dungeon on 
the bridge. The old bridge was finally pulled down in 

Above Warrington we come next to Thelwall, which 
was, as we have seen, the limit of the right of passage 
granted to Hugh Boydel, c. 1195. 

The late Mr. Thompson Watkin, in his Roman 
Lancashire, made the Roman road from Manchester to 
Wilderspool cross the Mersey somewhere near Lymm, 
and promised to treat more of it in Roman Cheshire, 
which, however, for some reason he did not do. The 
map of the Mersey and Irwell, made in 1721 for the 
intended navigation, shows "a Ford" near Rixton Hall, 
which perhaps was used for the purpose. 

The next crossing is at Hollin's Ferry, near Warbur- 

* The accompanying view of "Warrington Bridge in 1746" is from a 
drawing found among the papers of the late Dr. Kendrick, and now in the 
Warrington Museum. The drawing cannot be older than about 1850, 
and is believed to be largely conjectural. The artist no doubt had before 
him at the time the poor, but apparently faithful, oil sketch from nature, 
also in the Warrington Museum, which is reproduced in the smaller view 
"A," and which represents the bridge at the beginning of this century. 
From this he borrowed certain details, notably the row of poplar trees, 
which, transferred from their proper position on the right bank of the 
river, appear to be growing out of the bridge parapet. The point of view 
and the curve of the arches are, it will be observed, nearly identical in the 
two pictures. G. H. R. 



ton, formerly called Hollinfare, indicating a passage, 
which probably existed from very early times. Here the 
Duke of Cumberland crossed when pursuing the young 
Pretender's forces in 1745. The ferry and boat had 
been previously damaged or destroyed, as appears by 
the order for repair of the Mersey and Irwell bridges and 
ferries made in 1746 (Beamont's Annals of the Lords of 
Warrington, 1587-1833, p. 112). In 1823 the old ferry 
float was renewed. The ferry was superseded in 1863 by 
the Rixton Bridge, which itself will soon be superseded, 
owing to the filling up of the old river course. 

A little higher up were three crossings communicating 
with Flixton. Carrington Old Bridge, pulled down about 
1840, must -have been over two hundred years old, if it be 
true (as tradition states) that it was erected by a Lady 
Carrington to enable her tenants to attend Flixton 
Church, for the old hall passed from the Carringtons 
early in Elizabeth's reign. It was a footbridge only, and 
carts had to pass by the ford. In the order for repair 
of bridges in 1746 it is referred to as a wooden bridge. 
Another ford was opposite Flixton Church, and the third 
near Shaw Hall. I am indebted to our member Miss 
Leech, who has made a long study of these and kindred 
matters, for the remark that the fords were often found 
near the ancient churches, which were in most places 
erected by the side of rivers. By means of them, and 
the ways in connection with them, access could be 
obtained from one church to another without using the 
military roads. And after the establishment of the turn- 
pike system the avoiding of toll would furnish another 
motive for using these minor highways instead of the 
great roads. The Flixton ford is called in a seventeenth 
century deed "The Stone Ford." A field near, belonging 
to the church, was called before its purchase by the 


railway company "The Parson's Stamford." Several 
old tracks leading from this ford in various directions 
have been traced. 

Near Hillam Farm was another crossing. Miss Leech 
was for a long time puzzled to understand the fact, dis- 
closed by the church registers, that the youths of Ashton- 
on-Mersey often wedded the lasses of Urmston, and vice 
versa, there being no apparent passage for a few miles in 
either direction. But love we know laughs at difficulties 
of this kind, and enquiries amongst the people brought to 
light the former existence of this ford. 

Our next crossing brings us to a military highway, the 
first since Warrington, viz., the Roman road from 
Manchester to Kinderton and Chester. The name 
"Cross Ford" is still retained in the name of the bridge, 
and the adjacent village is Stretford. But in the 
fourteenth century we find the name "Crossferry" in an 
order given by the Black Prince as Earl of Chester, in 
regard to the unauthorised assumption of a right of 
passage across the Mersey between this point and 
Runcorn.* When the bridge was erected does not 
appear. Leland, writing in 1538, says : " I rode over 
Mersey water by a great bridge of Tymbre, caullid 
Crosford Bridge." In 1577 the timber bridge was taken 
down and replaced by the county with a stone edifice at 
a cost of 240, towards which sum the inhabitants of the 
town of Manchester of their benevolence bestowed 40. t 
In 1745 the bridge appears to have been pulled down, 
wholly or partially, to retard the progress of Prince 
Charles, who announced in his proclamation from 
Manchester, that he had given orders for the repair of 
this one particularly, though he did not propose to make 

"Ormerod, History of Cheshire, i. 447. f Hollinworth, Mancuniensis. 


use of it himself, and added with a spice of sarcasm, that 
if the forces with General Wade were coming this road, 
they might have the benefit of it. Before the prince 
returned to Manchester the bridge had again suffered. 
The Constable's accounts contain an item of disburse- 
ment, on December yth, for sundry charges of pulling up 
Crosford Bridge to retard the retreat of the rebels. In 
the order for repair of bridges it is described as of stone. 
In 1781 it is described as a "very firm, good bridge."* 

Passing by Jackson's Boat, where there is now a 
bridge, the successor of a wooden one erected in 1816, 
and a little below which a ford is stated to have formerly 
existed, we reach Barlow Ford, an obsolete and almost 
forgotten passage. t It was in use in 1745, as we find one 
of Prince Charlie's officers demanding a horse and a 
man to take him over it, and so to Altrincham.J; Mr. 
Worthington, the steward at Wythenshawe, who exhi- 
bited to our Society in 1889 a document relating to the 
attachment of a weir at Barlow in the fifteenth century, 
traces ancient ways diverging in three different directions 
from the ford on the Cheshire side. Fields close by 
bore, in 1641, the names, " Foard Field" and "Boat 
heys," from which latter it would appear that there was 
an ancient ferry here. 

Passing another ford at the bend of the river, near 
where Christ Church now stands of which there is now 
no trace, but which was used within living memory, not 
as a highway, but merely by the tenants of the Lum 
Farm to obtain access to some of their lands on the other 
side of the river we reach Northenden Ferry. This 
ferry has been in existence from time immemorial. In 

* Holme, No. 83. \L. 6- C. Ant. Soc. Trans., vii. 155. 

\Clty News, N. & Q., v. 69. Man. City News, Nov., 1888. 


1539 the then Tatton of Wythenshawe acquired the right 
to it by purchasing certain land from Sir Ralph Longford 
for 6. 135. 4d. 

Not far from this ferry is Didsbury, or Northenden 
ford, of which particulars were given in the Manchester 
City News in November, 1888. Here, in 1490 or 1491, a 
disaster took place. William Harrington, of West Leigh, 
and his wife a daughter of the house of Trafford were 
drowned while crossing the ford on horseback on the day 
of their marriage. 

Further up again we reach Gatley Ford, connected 
with Millgate Lane, Didsbury. This was once, no doubt, 
on a great highway from Manchester into Cheshire until 
the erection of Cheadle Bridge and the formation of the 
turnpike road diverted the traffic. About 1863 the 
making of the two railways on the Cheshire side of 
the river blocked the approach, and since that time it 
has been disused. Here, as at Urmston, the river proved 
no obstacle to an impetuous lover, and the Squire of 
Gatley, some seventy years ago, regularly crossed to the 
trysting place on the Didsbury side. At Cheadle there 
appears to have been a ferry, as "Cheadle Boat" is 
referred to in 1673 and again in 1744.* Cheadle Ford is 
the one by which Prince Charlie is said to have crossed 
the river on the ist December, 1745, t and for which a 
guide was demanded, in language more forcible than 
polite, as set forth in our Transactions, vii. 155. And it 
was here that occurred the pathetic incident of the 
aged lady, who, as a child, had seen the restoration of 
Charles II., straining her dim eyes to gaze on the features 
of the prince, and press his hand to her shrivelled lips. 

*Moss, Diddesbury, 61, 62. 
f Byrom "Journals," Cheth. Soc., 394. 


According to Heginbotham's Stockport, a bridge here was 
broken down to intercept the prince's retreat, and his 
army constructed a temporary bridge by lashing together 
a number of poplar trees. The contemporary accounts, 
however, do not speak of a pre-existing bridge but of 
"Cheadle Ford," and I think it likely that no permanent 
bridge was erected till afterwards. One of the objects of 
the Act of Parliament passed in 1752 for turnpiking the 
road from Didsbury to Wilmslow was for the erecting of 
a bridge over the river Mersey, as if no bridge previously 
existed there. A party, says Beppy Byrom, "went to 
Cheadle Ford . . . with a design to cut it up . . . 
but by nine o'clock they returned from their fruitless 
expedition." This was on the 8th December, 1745 the 
day the prince arrived back from Derby. In 1756 the 
bridge then in existence fell, killing one man and wounding 
another.* It was in due time rebuilt. 

At Stockport, formerly "Stopford," we again arrive at 
one of the great military highways. The Roman road 
from Manchester to Buxton crossed the river by a ford 
about sixty yards below the junction of the Tame with 
the Mersey. t When the ford was first superseded by a 
bridge is not known. The earliest known reference to 
the bridge is in 1372, when a licence was granted by 
the Bishop of Lichfield to Thomas, son of Henry of 
Manchester, chaplain, that he might celebrate divine 
service in an oratory within his hermitage, built at the 
end of the bridge of Stockport. The bridge in existence 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century was blown 
down in 1745 to arrest the progress of the rebels, and 
was afterwards rebuilt.]: 

*Harrop's Manchester Mercury, July I2th, 1756. 
t Heginbotham's Stockport, i., p. 13. 
I Ibid, ii. 428. 


Above Stockport the Mersey ceases to be a Lancashire 
river, but in its stead we will follow the Tame, which 
now becomes the county boundary. Immediately above 
the confluence there was a ford, respecting the access to 
which a trial took place in the Duchy Court of Lancaster 
in the reign of Philip and Mary; the result is not stated. 
It appears that at that time the road from Brinnington 
into Stockport must have been exceedingly difficult, in 
consequence of the rugged rocky banks of the river. In 
1496 grants were made to the Squire of Portwood of an 
attachment for a bridge across the Mersey, and of a 
landing place with his boat for his whole household to 
church and market. In return for the latter the squire 
was to pay fourpence per annum, and the grantor was to 
be free to the bull and boar at Portwood.* On the Tame 
the chief crossings would be between Denton and Hyde, 
at Dukinfield, and at Stalybridge. Hamnett Ford, ap- 
parently situated above Hyde, is referred to in the registers 
of the Nonconformist Chapel of Dukinfield, which state 
that in 1701 Abigail Hyde fell off from behind her 
husband into the river, and was carried down the water 
and died, being taken up next morning beneath Hyde 
mill weir. Dukinfield old bridge is well shown in the 
view of "Ashton in 1777," at page 255 of Transactions, 
vol. vii. 

Retracing our steps to the confluence of the Mersey 
and Irwell we proceed up the latter river, and soon arrive 
at Irlam Ferry, on the highway from Flixton. This is, 
no doubt, an ancient ferry, as communication must 
always have been necessary between Irlam and Flixton. 
It is shown as "Erlom Ferry" in the map of 1712, 
and is named in the Order for repair of bridges and 

* Heginbotham's Stockport, ii. 154. 


ferries in 1746. Some distance higher up is Holmes 
Bridge, named in the same map, and referred to in the 
same Order as a wooden bridge, and also shown in 
Morden's Map of Lancashire (1704) as situate on a road 
from Irlam to Flixton and Manchester. 

At Barton there was a "boat" in 1586 and 1590.* 
The bridge must have been erected at a later date. It 
was existing in 1712, as it is shown on the map of that 
date, and the Order for repair of bridges in 1746 describes 
it as a stone bridge. Beppy Byrom speaks of it having 
been pulled up in 1745. Trafford (where there was no 
bridge until our own day) speaks for itself. Entering 
Manchester, we come to Woden's Ford, described by 
Barritt as a paved causeway across the river Irwell, 
situate on the Roman road from Manchester to Wigan. 
Some notes on this ford, by Mr. Earwaker, will be found 
in our Transactions, vol. v., p. 249. 

We next reach the ford which has given its name to 
Manchester's sister borough. Many conjectures have 
been made as to the meaning of the first syllable in the 
word "Salford," from that which attributes it to a certain 
ancient dame of the name of Sal to the one favoured, 
provisionally, by Dr. J. A. H. Murray, of Oxford (whose 
authority is of the greatest), according to which it is from 
Salh, a willow. This is, however, only a likely conjecture, 
and it is still open to any one who can do so to discover 
a better derivation. The name, as we shall find, occurs 
again and again in Lancashire. Whatever the meaning, 
the fact is clear that the ford must have been a very 
ancient one, since it has given the name to both town 
and hundred. Of the bridge which ultimately super- 
seded it and for centuries played a conspicuous part 

* Shutthworth Accounts, p. 434. 


in Manchester life, notably during the siege of 1642, 
a pleasant recollection is left to us from the Jubilee 
Exhibition of 1887, in the Old Manchester and Salford 
section of which it was represented. (See Transactions, 
v., p. 165.) The bridge was probably constructed about 
1365 or 1368, in which latter year Thomas del Bothe 
made his will, leaving to the bridge at Salford 30, to be 
paid in the next three years by equal portions. The 
chapel founded by him stood upon one of the piers of the 
bridge. Leland says, "There be divers stone bridges in 
the toune, but the best of III arches is over Irwel. This 
bridge dividith Manchestre from Salford. . . . On this 
bridg is a praty litle chapel." 

The bridge was described by Holme, in 1781, as "a 
firm commodious bridge." He adds that it had been 
twice widened ; the first time about fifty years since 
(i.e., about 1730) on the south side, and on the north 
in 1779. The accompanying view, reproduced by Mr. 
Rowbotham from a drawing made about the beginning 
of this century, shows very clearly the later addition. 
The chapel, it will be remembered, was converted into a 
dungeon, and ultimately the whole bridge was pulled 
down in 1837, and replaced by the present more commo- 
dious one, which was opened for traffic as Victoria Bridge 
on the second anniversary of Her Majesty's accession. 
A careful inspection of the arches of the old bridge from 
below, made at the time it was pulled down, showed that 
the original structure could not have been more than from 
thirteen to fourteen feet in extreme width, so that the 
roadway could not have been more than twelve feet wide. 

Above Manchester we pass successively Broughton 
Ford, and the bridges at Agecroft, Ringley, Prestolee, and 
Radcliffe, each on an ancient line of communication, and 
probably preceded by a ford. Radcliffe is the point where 


the Roman road from Manchester to Ribchester crossed 
the river. Next above it comes Bury, at which point a 
bridge is shown in Saxton's Map of Lancashire (c. 1600). 
In the Kenyon Papers, at p. 73, is a letter dated 1664, 
requesting Roger Kenyon to send an order for the 
renewing of Bury Bridge "as the last floods have made 
wider the breach." In 1781, Holme says, "it consists of 
3 Gothic arches." "Great inconveniences," he adds, 
"arise from the narrowness of the bridge, the number of 
carriages of all kinds passing and repassing having 
greatly increased in the space of a few years." Above 
Bury, the river becomes fordable almost anywhere. 

For the rest of the river passages in the Mersey and 
Irwell watershed a brief enumeration must suffice. They 
include : 

OVER THE MEDLOCK. Knot Mill Bridge, superseding 
a ford on the Roman road, Manchester to Kinderton. 
London Road Bridge, built, according to Holme, about 
1740, superseding a ford originally on the Roman road, 
Manchester to Buxton. Ancoats Bridge, on the road to 
Ashton. It was existing in 1709, being referred to in the 
Dukinfield Chapel registers for that year. Bradford : As 
this is the name of the township, the ford must be very 
ancient. No bridge is named in the Enumeration of 
1781. Clayton Bridge, on an ancient highway, Rochdale 
to Stockport. 

OVER THE IRK. Hunt's Bank Bridge: Here was the 
crossing of the Roman road, Manchester to Ribchester. 
A bridge existed in 1473 (see Transactions, iii. 109). 
Scotland Bridge, on the old road to Rochdale. This or 
the preceding bridge is referred to by Leland. Smith 
Bridge, on the ancient highway, Rochdale to Stockport. 

OVER HANGING DITCH. The Hanging Bridge de- 
scribed in Transactions, viii., p. 97. 


OVER THE ROACH. Blackford, on the old road between 
Manchester and Bury. The old Blackford Bridge, though 
superseded by the newer one, is still standing, and is well 
shown in the accompanying drawing by Mr. Rowbotham. 
It was described in 1781 as of two arches and in good 
repair. Heap Bridge, on the road from Bury to Roch- 
dale, was rebuilt in 1776 and 1777. 

OVER SUDDEN BROOK. Sudden Bridge, on the road 
from Manchester to Rochdale. It is mentioned by 
Ogilby (1675). Close by was Smithiford, also referred 
to by him. 

OVER BRADSHAW BROOK. Thicketford or Hicitford, 
on the road, Bolton to Haslingden. The bridge was built 
in or about 1776 (Holme, No. 38). Pack Saddle Bridge, 

OVER MIDDLE BROOK. Claytonford, near Bolton, on 
the road to Preston. There was a bridge existing in 

OVER RUSHFORD BROOK. Rushford, on the road 
(Roman), Manchester to Buxton. The bridge was existing 
in 1781. 

OVER LONGFORD BROOK. Longford : The bridge was 
existing in 1781. It is to be distinguished from Longford 
Bridge across the canal. 

Bridge, on the road from Bolton to Blackburn, had 
beside it, in 1781, a good ford. As often happened, the 
bridge had been built out of line with the road to preserve 
the ford, which already occupied the direct line (Holme, 
No. 77). 

OVER GLAZEBROOK. Cadishead Bridge, on the road, 
Manchester to Warrington. Built 1776 (Holme, No. 16), 
prior to which there must have been a ford. Woolden: 
The passage here was held by the Earl of Derby after 


the siege of Manchester, but he was driven thence by the 

OVER SANKEY BROOK. Penkford Bridge, on the road, 
Bolton to St. Helens. 



The Douglas debouches into the estuary of the Kibble 
near Hesketh Bank, midway between Southport and 
Preston. At its mouth there is a road across the sands 
at low water, with a ford crossing the then narrow 
channel. There is also for use at high water the 
Longton Ferry, filling up the needed link in the route 
from Preston to Hesketh Bank and along the coast. 
A little higher up is "Johnson's Ferry," from Becconsall 
Marsh to Marsh Houses. Both these ferries are pro- 
bably ancient. Between Tarleton and Bretherton was 
an ancient ferry which, at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, belonged to Mr. Thomas Fleetwood, of Bank 
Hall, who erected a "very fair and large stone bridge." 
When the Douglas Navigation Act was passed, in 1720, 
it was provided that the promoters should either con- 
tinue the bridge or, if they pulled it down, erect a new 
one equally good and substantial. In connection with 
this ferry a token was issued, on the obverse of which 
appeared "TARLETON . TOWNE . HALPENIES," a boat, 
and "i669-"t 

Above Tarleton is the Strand Bridge, close by which is 
Barrowford House, the name pointing to the existence of 
an ancient ford. A little higher up we have Rufford, 

* Croston's Baines's Lancashire, iii. 265. 

f N. Hey wood, Corporation and other Tokens issued in the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries. 


which in 1650 was recommended by the Parliamentary 
Commissioners to be made into a distinct parish "in 
respect the waters lying betwixt the said towne of Rufford 
and the p'ishe of Croston are for the most p'te all the 
winter tyme not passable." At Wigan the river was 
crossed by the Roman road from Warrington to Walton- 
le-Dale, and a little higher up we have Horrocksford 
Bridge. Further up we have Grimeford Bridge and 
Andertonford Bridge or Bridges (there being another of 
the same name on the Middle Brook). 

The chief tributaries of the Douglas are the Lostock 
and the Yarrow, which take a parallel course. Each 
crosses the Roman road between Wigan and Walton, 
the former at Bamber Bridge, the latter at Pincock 
Bridge, which Ogilby, writing in 1675, mentions in his 
Britannia. Celia Fiennes, in her ride from Wigan to 
Preston, some twenty years or so later, notices the great 
height of the arches necessitated by the swelling of the 
brooks after great rains (see Transactions, ix. 112), but 
adds, "They are but narrow bridges, for foot or horse." 
" I passed by," she says, "at least half a dozen of those 
high single arches, besides several great stone bridges of 
four or six arches, which are very high also, over their 
greatest rivers." 

On the Lostock there is also a Hipping Stones Bridge, 
near Leyland. On the Tawd, another tributary, is 
Hollow Ford, with a footbridge on a lane leading from 
Newburgh to Burscough. On the Smithy Brook is 
another ford, near Goose Green, Wigan. 


Unlike the Mersey, the Ribble is fordable within sight 
of the seai From the Naze to Hesketh Bank is the 
over-sands route, formerly much used. (See Transactions, 


ix. 130.) But upon the river, as distinguished from the 
estuary, Penwortham claims to be the first ford. Allusion 
has already been made to the supposed derivation of the 
name from "Werid." In Kuerden's time, two centuries 
ago, there was both ford and ferry. In his MS., he 
describes the way from Preston to the ford, or when the 
river was not fordable to the "Key,"* "where divers 
boats are ready as occasion may require to waft them 
over to the other side." There were, it appears, two fords, 
the upper and the lower. In 1750, an Act was passed for 
the building of a bridge. The preamble states that a 
bridge is desirable, "inasmuch as the fords are by reason 
of the great freshes and tides, which have of late years 
happened therein, so much worn and become so deep and 
founderous that his Majesty's subjects even at low water, 
especially in the winter season, cannot pass the same on 
horseback, or with carts and carriages, without imminent 
danger." It further states that several persons had " lost 
their lives in endeavouring to pass the said river," and 
that although the place of fording had been changed, still 
from the force of the current and the nature of the soil, the 
new fords had become as difficult and founderous as 
the previous ones ; indeed, it appeared highly probable that 
the passage of the river would shortly be entirely lost and 
rendered impracticable. Power was accordingly given 
to erect a bridge and levy tolls, also to purchase the 
right of ferry from the owners of it. The bridge was 
erected and completed in 1755. In September of the 
following year, one of the piers of the centre arch gave 
way, and shortly afterwards five other arches fell. The 
bridge was reconstructed after another Act had been 
obtained in 1757. 

* Hardwick's History of Preston, p. 211. 


Proceeding up the river, we soon arrive at the point 
where crossed the Roman, road from north to south. 
Here, commanded by the station at Walton-le-Dale, 
was the natural ford or "pass of the Kibble."* The first 
bridge was probably of Saxon or Early Norman con- 
struction. t A bridge is mentioned in an old boundary 
deed quoted in a verdict given in the gth Henry III. In 
this reign letters patent were granted for the "pontage of 
the river Ribble, juxta Preston," and afterwards for the 
paviage of the bridge.]; Leland describes the structure 
as, "the great stone bridge of Rybill having V great 
arches," and Kuerden as "one of the statelyest stone 
bridges in the north of England." The position of this 
bridge was one of great military value. Cromwell in 
1648 fought the Scots there, and drove them over it, and 
over the adjoining bridge across the Darwen. And in 
1715 the abandonment of the defence of this bridge 
proved fatal to the Jacobite forces, who were soon 
afterwards compelled to surrender. The present bridge, 
which is about fifty yards above the old one, was 
completed in 1782. The accompanying view of the old 
bridge is from the South Prospect of Preston in 1728 by 
S. and N. Buck. 

Above Preston there are ferries at Samlesbury, Elston, 
Balderston, and Osbaldeston. The last named has been 
appurtenant to the manor for nearly six hundred years. 
At Ribchester is the ford where the Roman road to 
Manchester crossed. At present there is both a ferry and 
a bridge. At Samlesbury there was a "boat " and boat- 
man early in the seventeenth century (see Transactions, 
ix. 132), and in 1643 the army of Royalists, under the 
Earl of Derby, were forced to ford the river here up 

* Hardwick's Preston, pp. 38, 128. f Ibid, p. 128. J Ibid, p. 128. 


to the chin in water.* At Dinckley the Trows or 
Trough's Ferry has existed from time immemorial The 
river being here very deep, the boatmen have always 
observed the same course across the stream, although 
at the other Ribble ferries the landing places have to 
be continually changed owing to variations in the river 

The next crossing is at Bullasey Ford, near the tumulus 
at Brockhall, and after Hacking Ferry, at the confluence 
with the Calder and Mitton Bridge, we reach Edisford. 
There is now a bridge, but the direct way to the ford is 
clearly indicated. On the Yorkshire side of the Ribble 
there was once a small hospital for lepers. 

At Brungerley, on the road between Clitheroe and 
Waddington, was a ford, which was crossed by King 
Henry VI. after he had escaped from Waddington Hall. 
In the adjoining wood he secreted himself, but unavailingly, 
for he was immediately afterwards captured and taken 
prisoner to London. Here, until almost within living 
memory, the only means of crossing was by the hipping 

Stone matched with stone 
In studied symmetry, with interspace 
For the clear waters to pursue their race 
Without restraint. 

The present stone bridge was erected about eighty years 
ago, having been preceded by a wooden structure which 
was washed away by a flood (Dobson, 136). 

After Bradford and Horrocksford, place names which 
speak for themselves, we reach the point where the Ribble 
ceases to be a Lancashire river. 

* Croston's Baines's Lancashire, iv. 18. 
t Burnett's Holiday Rambles, pp. 18, 39. 
Dobson's Rambles by the Ribble, first series, 136. 


Of the tributaries of the river the principal are the 
Hodder and the Calder. At the mouth of the HODDER 
was a ford, which is, I understand, still occasionally used. 
Above it is the Lower Bridge, on the road from Mitton 
to Stonyhurst. The old bridge (now superseded by the 
newer one, about thirty yards higher up) was erected in 
1561 by Sir Richard Sherburn. An indenture by which 
Roger Crosley, mason, contracted for the mason work for 
70 still exists. For a long time previously there would 
appear to have been a bridge, probably of wood, and 
liable to be swept away when, in the old phrase, 
" Hodder came down." The impetuosity of the river 
and the frequent breaking of the bridge are spoken of in 
a document dated 1329 (see "Centenary Record of Stony- 
hurst College"). At this bridge, on the i6th August, 
1648, Cromwell arrived with his army from Skipton, and 
held a council of war whether to cross or not. Having 
decided to do so, he marched next day to Preston, where 
he fought the battle already referred to. The scene at 
the bridge has formed the subject of a painting by 
Charles Cattermole. 

The "Higger Brig," as the people about call the 
Higher Hodder Bridge, is on the road from Clitheroe by 
Edisford. Doeford Bridge, on the road from Chipping, 
tells in its very name the story of the successive ford and 

The CALDER has several crossings. Not far above its 
confluence with the Ribble are Potter's Ford and Chew 
Mill Ford, respectively on the Roman roads from Ribchester 
to near Skiptcn and to Portfield.* Above Whalley was 
Fenysford, on the road to Bury and Manchester, to 
which allusion has already been made. The Order of 

* Watkin's Roman Lancashire, p. 78. 


1 r 

5 a 

o O 

2 O 

> o 



H W 



Sessions, in 1632, states that over this ford "when the 
water is little there is commonly two or three hundred 
lowden horses every day pass over, besides great number 
of other passengers." 

On smaller tributaries of the Kibble we have : 

On the BRUN : Salford Bridge in Burnley, and Salter- 
ford Bridge, near Worsthorn. 

On MEARLEY or PENDLETON BROOK, just outside 
Clitheroe, another Salford Bridge. 

On PENDLE WATER: Reedyford Bridge. 

On BARROWFORD BECK: Barrowford Bridge. 

On SAVILE BROOK: Cowford Bridge. 

On PENDLETON BROOK, where the Roman road from 
Ribchester crosses a ford, a fragment of the road was 
laid open on the brink of the brook.* 

On the DARWEN, the bridge at Walton-le-Dale has 
been already alluded to. It is mentioned by Cromwell, 
who, after beating the enemy from Ribble Bridge, fol- 
lowing them, possessed the ''Bridge over Darwen" also. 

The Wyre, the Lune, and the remaining rivers of 
Lancashire, I must leave to be dealt with on another 

* Roman Lancashire, 78. 



* I ""HE beautiful vale of the Ribble is everywhere rich 
J- in memories of the past, but perhaps no part of 
it contains so many monuments of ancient times as that 
where the Ribble, the Hodder, and the Calder converge 
to form one stream. Here venerable old churches, 
picturesque abbey ruins, and noble ancestral halls carry 
back the mind to mediaeval times, while the Roman 
road, Roman forts, and the well-known Roman town of 
Ribchester recall the distant days when the legions of 
the imperial city first set foot upon its slopes. And 
there is that within the valley which will lead the imagi- 
nation of the thoughtful visitor back to the misty dawn 
of history, when savage Britons hunted the wild beasts 
of the woods of Ribblesdale with flint-tipped weapons, or 
laboured with loyal devotion to raise some huge and 
lasting monument over the funeral pyre of a departed 
chief. To relate the discovery of such a monument in 
the Ribble valley is the object of this paper. 


In the field which stands within the bend of the 
Kibble, where it goes out of its way to welcome the 
waters of the Calder, stand two huge mounds of earth. 
Both are covered with grass, and on the largest, which 
is also nearest the river, grow six very ancient hawthorns. 
These mounds have received a good deal of attention 
from the historians and antiquaries of our county. Now 
they have been thought to be mere natural hills of 
curious shape; now to be deposits made by the great 
glacier which once crept seawards along Ribblesdale. 
One learned antiquary thought they might have been 
formed by the confluence of the three rivers about their 
bases ; while some of the rustics believed them to have 
been erected by their very provident predecessors as 
refuges for the sheep in time of flood. Hadn't they 
themselves seen the sheep huddle together atop of 'em 
in flood-time ? The most generally received conjecture, 
however, was that they covered the remains of some of 
the chief men who fell in the fierce fight which took 
place in the neighbourhood between Eardwulf, King of 
Northumbria, and the rebel chief Wada, A.D. 798. The 
battle is thus recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: 
"A.D. 798. This year a severe battle was fought in the 
Northumbrian territory, during Lent, on the fourth day 
before the nones of April, at Whalley, wherein Alric, the 
son of Herbert, was slain, and many others with him." 
The account of the battle given by Simeon of Durham 
is more interesting, since it gives more precise infor- 
mation of the locality in which it was fought. "A.D. 798. 
A conspiracy having been organised by the murderers of 
Ethelred the king, Wada, the chief of that conspiracy, 
commenced a war against Eardwulf, and fought a battle 
at a place called by the English Billangahoh, near 
Walalega, and, after many had fallen on both sides, 


Wada and his army were totally routed." Traces of 
the name Billangahoh are still preserved in the names 
of the two contiguous townships, Billington and Langho. 
Several writers on the subject have thought that this 
battle raged fiercest at the old and now unused ford, 
known as Bullasey Ford, about half a mile below the 
mounds of which I have spoken. This theory is sup- 
ported by the fact that a tumulus existed on the south 
bank of the river near this ford until the year 1836. 
Canon Raines relates its removal in the following words : 
" In the year 1836, as Thomas Hubbersty, the farmer, 
of Brockhall, was removing a large mound of earth in 
Brockhall Eases, about five hundred yards from the bank 
of the Ribble, on the left of the road leading from the 
house, he discovered a kist-vaen, formed of rude stones, 
containing some human bones and the rusty remains of 
some spear-heads of iron. The whole crumbled to dust 
on exposure to the air. Tradition has uniformly recorded 
that a battle was fought about Langho, Elker, and Buck- 
foot, near the Ribble, and this tumulus was opened within 
two hundred yards of a ford of the Ribble (now called 
Bullasey-ford), one of the very few points for miles where 
that river could be crossed. The late Dr. Whitaker 
repeatedly, but in vain, searched for remains of this 
battle, as he appears to have erroneously concluded that 
the scene of it was higher up the river, near Hacking 
Hall, at the junction of the Calder and the Ribble" 
(Notitia Cestriensis, pt. 2, p. 286). The "five hundred 
yards" is evidently a mistake. The Canon probably 
wrote "one hundred yards," which would be nearly 
correct. The ford was below the site of the mound, 
not above, as shown by Hardwick in his Ancient 
Battlefields in Lancashire, p. 130. Dr. Whitaker was 
led to think the scene of the battle to be near Hacking 


Hall, because he supposed the large mound opposite 
to be the tomb of some chieftain slain in the battle. 
He says: " Of this great battle there are no remains, 
unless a large tumulus near Hacking Hall, and in the 
immediate vicinity of Langho, be supposed to cover 
the remains of Alric or some other chieftain among 
the slain" (History of Whalley, p. 30). 

It is surprising to find that the learned historian was 
ignorant of the existence of the second large tumulus, 
which stood not two hundred yards from the one he 
mentions, and equally unconscious of the mound which 
stood, when he wrote, in Brockhall Eases, and which, 
though probably much smaller than either of the other 
two, must have been a prominent object in the landscape, 
standing as it did in the centre of an open field. He 
probably became better acquainted with this part of the 
country some years after he had written the above words, 
for Abram, speaking of the large mound opposite Hacking 
Hall, says: "Into this mound Whitaker had some ex- 
cavation made about the year 1815, but he found the 
work heavy, and gave it up without reaching the centre 
of the tumulus, where the relics of sepulture might be 
expected to be found" (History of Blackburn, p. 28). The 
shallow basin and trench in the top of this mound have, 
we may suppose, borne the worthy doctor's footprints, in 
which the writer aspires to follow him, but not, he hopes, 
to tire so soon. 

Such was the state of the case until last June (1894). 
Mr. Hardwick expressed the thoughts of many when 
he wrote: "Interesting results, both to geologists and 
archaeologists, may, therefore, be anticipated from a 
thorough examination of the contents of these remark- 
able 'lowes' or 'mounds'; but, as some expense would 
be attendant thereupon, they may yet, for some time, 


remain an interesting puzzle, both to the learned and to 
the unlearned in such matters" (loc. cit.). It was 
thought that the golden obstacle to the solution of this 
" interesting puzzle" could be overcome, if the necessary 
permissions could be obtained. The writer waited upon 
Mr. W. W. Simpson, the owner of the estate upon which 
the mounds stand, and found him most willing to offer 
every facility for carrying out the work of investigation. 
He has since taken the warmest interest in the work, 
and has shown every kindness to those engaged in the 
excavations. For various reasons it was decided to 
attack the smaller of the two mounds first. It stands 
about three hundred yards from the nearest part of the 
Kibble, i.e., the part directly opposite the mouth of the 
Calder. It is a bowl-shaped mound, rising gently from 
the field to a height of eleven feet at the centre; the 
diameter of the base, which is almost a perfect circle, 
being one hundred and fifteen feet. Near the top is a 
basin, too large to be accounted for by any "caving in," 
which is often thought to explain the hollows almost in- 
variably found in British barrows. Mr. Simpson thought 
this hollow had been used at some past time as a rude 
limekiln, and we shall see that the spade unearthed 
evidence which seems to put this supposition beyond the 
region of doubt. 

Following the practice of most of the greatest 
authorities on "barrow-digging," I resolved to cut a 
section out of the mound, extending from the base to the 
centre on the field level; but afterwards it seemed that 
our object might be attained by beginning from the 
bottom of the basin referred to above, and this course 
was adopted. The work was begun on June i8th, 1894. 
Immediately below the turf, near the highest part of the 
mound, we struck a large limb of an old tree root, 


apparently in situ. This was encouraging, for it gave us 
hope that the mound had not been disturbed, at least in 
the centre, since this root first nourished a living tree, 
perhaps several hundred years ago. It was also interest- 
ing as evidence that one tree at least had at some time 
grown on this mound, for there was no exterior sign of a 
tree or bush, while on the large mound several very old 
"thorns" still flourish. The presence of trees on mounds 
goes some way to prove their sepulchral character, for 
they are so universally found on barrows, that some 
eminent archaeologists have thought that the mound- 
builders planted trees there with some special intention 
or under some superstition. After digging through the 
rich mould which lay beneath the turf to a depth of 
three feet we came upon a cairn of large stones with very 
little soil between them. Most of them were water-worn 
limestones and sandstones, evidently from the river bed. 
The great majority were about the size of a man's head, 
though some were so huge that it took more than one 
man to lift them. A good number of stones were inter- 
spersed among the top soil, but here the work consisted 
of nothing but throwing out hundreds of these boulders. 
Among these stones was found the first proof of the 
sepulchral character of the mound; the composition of 
the mound as then seen precluded the idea of its being a 
natural hill or a glacial deposit. High among the stones, 
about five feet from the top of the mound, we discovered 
many pieces of a human skull, eight human teeth, and 
many broken human bones. Near these a most important 
discovery was made of a small flint knife or scraper. 
It is elliptical in shape, slightly over one and a half 
inches through the longer axis and three-quarters of an 
inch through the shorter. One side is flat, while the 
other has a ridge along its centre; the edge being 


serrated by means of a number of fine chippings on the 
ridged side. That small flint weapon gave the Anglo- 
Saxon battle theory of the origin of the mound a blow 
which made it stagger, until later discoveries quite 
knocked it over. The hopes of fine Anglo-Saxon weapons 
of bronze and iron, which we had fondly cherished, now r 
began to wane, but only to give place to keener hopes 
that the mound was about to reject the very respectable 
antiquity of eleven hundred years, and to lay claim to the 
Neolithic Period, far away in prehistoric ages, as the date 
of its erection. Nor were these hopes to be disappointed. 
Lower down among the stones, about five feet south of 
the centre, parts of another very thin skull were found. 
Judging from the teeth in the jawbones, Mr. Henderson 
Bulcock, dentist, of Clitheroe, states that it is the skull 
of a child not more than six or seven years of age. Many 
other broken bones, presumably belonging to this child, 
were lying in a mass near the skull. 

On piercing the cairn, or rather, what proved to be a 
dome of stones, four feet thick, covering a heap of brown 
clay mixed with stones, we found what I believe to have 
been the chief interment, viz., the cremated remains of a 
human body. It was merely a mass of crushed bones 
lying on a thin layer of charcoal, bits of which were 
widely diffused through the underlying clay. Not a bone 
of this mass was whole, neither had the heat been great 
enough to reduce them to ashes; but they appear to have 
been broken up after the burning, and laid on some of 
the ashes of the wood fire. The cremation could not 
have taken place where the remains were found, for the 
charcoal found was not nearly sufficient to be the ashes 
of a fire large enough to burn a body, nor did the clay 
appear to have been burnt, but was quite ductile. We 
searched carefully for any urn or pottery which might 


have been placed near the body, for urns are sometimes 
found with cremated remains, though not nearly so often 
as with unburnt bodies, but nothing of the kind was 
found. We felt sure that the mound had been raised as 
a monument to the honour of the person to whom this 
body had belonged, but to make certain that there was 
no grave deeper down, i.e., below the original level of the 
soil, above which the body found was laid, we sank a 
well at the centre of the mound. After passing through 
a thin stratum of grey-blue clay, we reached a bed of fine 
yellow sand, which had evidently never been disturbed 
since it was first deposited there by the waters of the 
Kibble. We sank this well to a depth of thirteen and a 
half feet from the apex of the mound, when further 
search in that direction seemed hopeless. 

We then began to think of carrying out our original 
plan of opening the mound from the verge to the centre, 
and in this design we were confirmed by advice kindly 
given by Professor Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S. In 
doing this our hope was to find some secondary or later 
interments, which are frequently discovered in the 
southern half of large tumuli. Beginning at the level 
of the field, and cutting through a layer of loosely packed 
stones, running parallel with the slope of the mound, we 
found what appeared to be another cairn of stones 
beneath that part of the mound which was highest, 
before it dipped into the basin described above. The 
outer stones, which seemed to have been chosen for 
their squareness, were almost as well fitted together as 
the curbstones of a footpath. On extending the trench 
through these stones, so as to enter the cutting already 
made from the bottom of the basin, and having made a 
side cutting where the "second cairn" occurred, we con- 
cluded that this was but part of the large central cairn of 


stones, and that some stones had been removed from 
below the basin. It seemed, in fact, that these stones 
had been taken out to be burnt for lime, for beneath 
the turf of the basin we found large lumps of calcareous 
matter mixed with pieces of coal, which would seem to 
prove conclusively that this hollow had been used as a 
rude lime kiln, especially as many stones beneath the 
basin, and also the earth, showed signs of having been 
subjected to great heat. No sign of secondary inter- 
ments was found in this part of the mound. 

We now proceeded to enlarge the cutting at the centre 
of the barrow, in order to discover whether there were 
any other remains there. In this we were successful, for 
another skull was found among the stones, about four 
feet below the turf, and six feet east of the middle of the 
mound. It preserved its original form when discovered, 
but, despite the greatest care, fell to pieces when the 
earth was removed from around it. Part of the upper 
jaw is missing, but the lower jaw is complete, and Mr. 
Bulcock states that it belonged to a child, probably a 
boy of thirteen or fourteen years of age. The teeth, like 
all those found, are in a state of perfect preservation, the 
enamel being beautifully white and very hard, while not 
one shows the slightest sign of caries. Three or four 
burnt teeth were found among the bones of the cremated 
body. Another very interesting "find" in this part of 
the mound was that of the central part of a bone, four 
inches long, one and a quarter broad, and three quarters 
thick. Each end, on both sides, has been worn down by 
the sharpening of some metal instrument upon it. The 
stone is of some beautifully fine material, looking like 
pale green satin where it is split. Several fragments of 
pottery were also found among some soil which fell in 
during the heavy rains of July, and it is, therefore, im- 


possible to state their exact position. One was the 
handle of a vessel made of fine well-burnt clay. Inden- 
tations made by the finger and thumb in fixing it to the 
vessel yet remain, no attempt having been made to level 
them out when the clay was soft. A piece of the side 
and bottom of a large flat pan is quite black in the middle, 
while the surfaces are brick coloured. The edge seems 
to have been crimped with the finger and thumb. 

Besides the human bones, found in various parts of the 
barrow, were found some bones of animals. Among 
these, bones of the horse, ox (bos longifrons), sheep, goat, 
and various rodents have been found. Animal bones are 
often found in these barrows, and are believed to be the 
remains of funeral feasts partaken of on the mounds, but 
there were not enough bones of any one animal found 
together to warrant such a conclusion being drawn in 
this case. Many snail-shells were also found. Of course, 
the snails may have been clinging to the stones taken 
from the river or have worked their way down since ; but 
I believe that we always found more shells about the 
human remains than in any other part of the mound. 
Snail-shells have been found so frequently in British 
barrows that Mr. Flower, F.G.S., thinks they may have 
been put in from some superstition, while Mr. Cunnington 
thought they were thrown in for food. 

Among the great number of stones thrown out, many 
were full of fossils, mostly common encrinites. One was 
a huge mass of crinoidal stems, which stood out in high 
relief, the water of the river having washed away all 
foreign matter from between them. Dr. Henry Wood- 
ward, LL.D., F.R.S., who, with Mr. Tiddeman, F.G.S., 
was staying at Stonyhurst College, visited the mound, 
and asked for this interesting mass of fossils for the 
British Museum, whither it has been sent. 


The cutting made was seventy-six feet long, six wide, 
and eleven deep at the centre of the barrow, where it 
widened into a well twelve feet across. It was south-east 
in direction. 

In this account I have endeavoured to tell in a simple 
way just what we found, without trying to deduce any 
but the most obvious conclusions. Our labours have, I 
think, finally settled the origin of at least one of the two 
mounds, which have for so long been an "interesting 

Of all the theories formed to explain the nature of 
these mounds, the true one that they were ancient 
British barrows does not seem to have suggested itself 
to anyone. That such is the truth will hardly be 
doubted if the discoveries made in this mound be com- 
pared with those made by Sir R. Colt Hoare, Mr. 
Bateman, Canon Greenwell, and others. The body 
cremated and buried in the rudest fashion; the three 
skulls, possibly those of victims, &c., sacrificed at the 
funeral obsequies; the flint knife, the rude pottery, all tend 
to prove that the mound was a monument erected by some 
prehistoric people, to some person distinguished among 
them. The flint knife, though small, is like those 
attributed to the more advanced part of the Stone Age, 
known as the Neolithic Period; while the hone would 
seem to prove that metal instruments were in use when 
the mound was built. A cut on a small piece of wood, 
which was found among the remains of the fire, might be 
thought to be too clean to have been made by anything 
but a metal axe. This wood, which seems to be willow, 
is charred at one end. 

It is almost certain that flint instruments remained in 
use after the introduction of bronze, for stone and bronze 
weapons have often been found together in the same 








barrow; and we must remember Sir John Lubbock's 
warning not to ascribe every barrow to the Stone Age in 
which a stone instrument was found. 

The larger mound yet remains to be explored, and as 
the work is now in progress, I hope before long ; to be 
allowed to offer an account of the discoveries made in 
opening it. 




/CHETHAM'S Close lies in the township of Turton, 
v_^ about four miles from Bolton, and can be best 
approached from Turton Station on the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway. It formed part of the Turton estate, 
upon which Turton Tower was a prominent feature, and 
in 1628 passed into the hands of Humphrey Chetham, 
from whom it takes its name. Recently (in 1890) the 
Turton estate was sold by auction, and Chetham's Close 
became and now is the property of Thomas Hardcastle, 
Esq., J.P., of Bradshaw Hall, near Bolton, a member 
of this Society. 

From time immemorial the existence of a so-called 
Druidical circle upon the top of Chetham's Close has 
been recognised, and at one time the monuments of this 
circle must have been very pronounced and prominent. 
Within the last quarter of a century, however, the stones 
have been sadly mutilated and in part destroyed. This 
was chiefly done by the tenant farmer of the late owner, 
Mr. James Kay, who objected to people visiting the 
situation. Mr. Kay was communicated with, but did 


little or nothing to prevent the mutilation. I am glad 
to say that the present owner has expressed his intention 
of faithfully restoring and protecting the circle, and by 
the aid of the plan taken in 1871 by Mr. Thomas Green- 
halgh, of Thornydikes, near Bolton, will have little 
trouble in doing so. Writing to me on August gth, 
1890, he says : " I have this afternoon spent some time 
on the site of the Druidical circle with Mr. Edmund 
Ashworth, and, with the assistance of Mr. Greenhalgh's 
plan, we have clearly made out the position of the circle. 
I am glad to find there are sufficient stones and remains 
of stones to enable this to be done, and it seems 
that there are similar stones close at hand to complete 
the circle." 

By the courtesy of Mr. J. P. Earwaker, I have 
had placed in my hands an early description of the 
circle, published in 1829 (August nth) in the first volume 
of the Cambrian Society, and contributed by a writer 
who signs himself " Elvaeliad." He says : " In the 
parish of Bolton -le- Moors is a hill named Turton 
Heights, and on the south-east end of it is a large sheep 
pasture, which goes by the name of Chetham's Close. 
Nearly on the summit of this close, but inclining to the 
north-east, are the remains of a bardic temple, the 
diameter of which is about seventeen yards. There are 
only six stones of the circle remaining, and these are 
sorely mutilated either by time or the hand of man. 
The circle is as perfect as if traced by the compasses of 
Newton or La Place; and, what is rather singular, an 
upright stone stands about thirty-seven yards nearly east 
from its outward verge and another about seventeen 
yards due south. The 'maen gorsedd' has disappeared 
as well as some other stones forming the circle, and, 
from the oozy nature of the ground, I am inclined to 


believe that independent of the mutilations mentioned the 
surface of the earth has risen considerably since the circle 
was first constructed. The views to the north and east 
are very fine, but bounded by hills rising and swelling 
above each other. Towards the south and south-east 
are seen Bolton and Manchester, with their busy 
populations; a considerable part of fertile Cheshire, 
Mow Hill in Staffordshire, and lofty ranges of moun- 
tains both in Derbyshire and Yorkshire; and were it not 
for *Edgar or Winter Hill on the west Penmaenmawr 
frowning upon the sea, Moel y Vammeau, and the 
bicapitated head of Snowdon would be distinctly visible 
on a clear day. 

"Frequently have I visited this interesting spot, and, 
amidst the silence and solitude which reign there, 
thought of 'the days of former years.' Here have the 
bards in their different orders often met and performed 
their various rites and mysteries, with their uni-coloured 
robes flowing before the breeze. Here have hundreds, 
probably thousands, standing without the circle observed 
the solemn proceedings, and listened with deep attention 
to the maxims and doctrines which philosophers and 
Druids delivered. Since those periods, what changes, 
what revolutions have taken place! How often has the 
blue lightning flashed and the thunder rolled over this 
sacred spot! Kingdoms have risen and fallen, emperors 
have been throned and dethroned, arts and sciences have 
retrograded and advanced, and various and awful occur- 
rences have taken place; but these rude stones, though 
severely shattered, still remain as attestations of the 

* This is evidently the origin of the name of the adjacent township, 
" Egerton." I have seen the place, " Edgar's town," marked in (fifteenth 
century) Lancashire maps. 


religious and philosophical views of the ancient Briton. 
But where are the founders of this monument and those 
who worshipped there ? The sages who often proclaimed 
within this circle, ' Y gwir yn erbyn y byd,' are gone the 
way of all flesh. ' Our fathers, where are they ? the 
prophets, do they live for ever ? ' 

"About a mile and a half from this bardic temple a 
neighbour and friend of mine, whilst digging a drain, 
about twenty years ago (1819), discovered the head of 
an old British standard, which is now in my possession. 
It is of copper, the head of which is shaped like an axe, 
and the other end has a double groove in which the 
flagstaff entered, and, by that means, became firmly 
fixed. Its weight is fourteen ounces and a half, but was 
evidently heavier when perfect, as the ring on its side 
through which the cord of the flag ran is broken off, and 
the lower end of the groove has been also mutilated. Its 
figure, though not an exact one, may be seen in Cough's 
edition of Camden's Britannia, vol. ii., p. 501, pi. xviii., 
figure 13. From traces still remaining it is evident that 
a Roman road passed within two hundred yards where 
this relic was found. Now, my opinion is that the 
Romans and Britons met there in hostile array, and with 
their flags unfurled ; that in the action which took place 
the Roman soldiers, for soldiers are ever the same, 
dashed at the British flag and cut it down, and that, 
owing to the tumult, the confusion, and the boggy 
nature of the ground, the standard head was broken off, 

sunk into the earth, and was lost. 

"August nth, 1829." 

Thus ends this chronicler, and his testimony is useful 
as corroborating that of subsequent generations. 

In 1871 Mr. Thomas Greenhalgh, of Thornydikes, 


Bolton, prepared the following account of the circle, 
which was read before the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation, on June I4th of that year, and is published in 
the twenty-seventh volume of the transactions of that 
society : 

"The township of Turton, like many others in south- 
west Lancashire, is largely occupied by lofty moorland 
hills the home of the grouse and the lapwing. Amongst 
these wilds is a range of high ground standing more 
distinct from the other moors than is usual with hills of 
this nature. The range is divided into two parts by a 
slight depression. That portion to the north is named 
Turton Heights, and is stated by the Ordnance Survey 
to be one thousand one hundred feet above the sea. 
The southern half is known as Chetham Close, from its 
having been the property of that old Lancashire worthy, 
Humphrey Chetham. This part is twenty-five feet 
lower than Turton Heights, and the depression spoken 
of above sinks about thirty feet lower still. The summit 
of each is a sort of table-land, sloping gently towards the 
depression just named, and extending both together 
about a mile from north to south by a quarter of a mile 
from east to west. 

"Nearly in the centre of the northerly slope of 
Chetham Close and at an elevation of one thousand 
and sixty feet stand several stones of a Druidical 
circle. This circle, I should judge, originally consisted 
of eleven stones. Of these seven are still standing 
in a more or less perfect state. The diameter of the 
circle is small, being only fifty-one feet six inches. So 
the stones are, as might be expected, small likewise. 
The tallest is fifty-five inches by eighteen inches wide, 
and the shortest (number four) eight inches only in 
height. At the distance of forty-five feet, south-west 

>0 I 


from the outside of the circle, stands a solitary stone, 
nineteen inches high by ten inches wide, and south- 
south-east at a distance of one hundred and two feet 
another stone, thirty-five inches high by seventeen 
inches wide. The stones vary in thickness from nine 
inches to fifteen inches. 

"The position of the stones is circular, with vacant 
spots, and their dimensions and shapes vary. The 
table-land gradually rises from the circle in a south- 
south-east direction and a short distance past the 
outlying stone a height of one thousand and seventy-five 
feet is attained, and a quarter of a mile further on a view 
is to be got, with a clear atmosphere, which towards the 
south is bounded only by the powers of vision. From 
this spot the ancient people who erected the circle must 
have often gazed on a scene which persons now familiar 
with south Lancashire would find it impossible to realise. 
The valleys and even the sides of the hills were clothed 
with trees, the oak and birch predominating, whilst the 
margins of the numerous streams and swamps were over- 
hung by the alder; the wild boar and doubtless the wolf 
roamed in the woods, and smaller game abounded in the 
more open parts. The numerous waters throughout 
the district would be alive with fish, amongst which the 
salmon might be numbered; for when the country was 
better wooded and entirely uncultivated the large rainfall 
of the district (now about a mean of fifty-five inches) 
would be still more copious, and keep the streams full of 

"The last few centuries have, however, wrought a 
wonderful change in the scene, which has been the most 
rapid since the introduction of machinery into the 
country; and from the same spot may now be seen the 
habitations, comprised in towns, villages, and farm- 


houses, of hundreds of thousands of human beings. 
Unfortunately, however, there are still to be -found 
amongst us persons as barbarous in some respects as the 
rude people who erected the circle. These were rude in 
their ideas of building; the others barbarous in wantonly 
destroying that which time had made more interesting 
than the palaces of kings. Up to the spring of last year 
the circle appeared to have suffered little for ages ; but at 
that time rambling over the moors I turned aside to take 
another look at the circle. Not that I thought of any- 
thing having happened, but for old acquaintance' sake; 
when to my surprise I noticed a framework of wood 
within the circle, and upon reaching the spot itself 
what my disgust and astonishment were may be easily 
imagined, when I found two of the stones broken almost 
to fragments, and several others damaged. This could 
only have been effected by the aid of a heavy hammer, as 
the stories broken were before strong and sound. For- 
tunately, they were not rooted up so their places are still 
seen in the group. One very small one has apparently 
been in the state it now is for a long time. 

" I at once communicated my unpleasant discovery to 
the owner of the land, James Kay, Esq., of Turton 
Tower, who instituted an enquiry, and traced it to some 
members of a picnic party, who had made use of the 
ground without asking leave. A few more such wanton 
pieces of mischief, and this interesting relic, like many 
others of its class, will be irrecoverably destroyed. 

"About a mile from the circle, north-west from it and 
on a much lower level, eight hundred and ninety feet 
above the sea, is a flat piece of bog, called 'Charter's 
Moss.' Here was found, about 1810, a bronze British 
celt. It was discovered by a man whilst digging turf, as 
I am told, at four feet from the surface. Having taken a 

o * 



H I 


'J- Z. 

Z PL, 

O o 

o 2 

z O 


C c 


careful drawing of it, I found, upon comparing it with 
similar objects in the British Museum, that in cases 
Nos. 13 to 20, 'British Antiquities Department,' there 
were several closely resembling it, and one, No. 315 Z, 
the all but exact representation of it. The Rev. Mr. 
Probert, in whose possession it had been for nearly half 
a century, and who resided a few hundred yards from 
the spot where it was dug up, died recently (then 1871), 
and bequeathed it to New College,* Gordon Square, 

I have no doubt that the British celt referred to in 
this account by Mr. Greenhalgh is the same as that 
mentioned in the previous description by " Elvaeliad," 
and I conjecture that this is the nom de guerre of the 
same Rev. William Probert referred to, who was a 
literary man, and the author of Ancient Laws of Cambria 
(1823) and other works. I am glad to say that this celt 
was kindly given up by the authorities of Manchester 
New College, and has been placed in the Chadwick 
Museum, Bolton. It is also interesting to note that a 
similar specimen was found in a quarry on Cockey Moor, 
near Ainsworth, about three miles from and in view of 
the circle, by Dr. Denham, about 1839. ^ ^ s stm * m tne 
possession of his family. 

Mr. Matthew Dawes, of Bolton, also wrote a descrip- 
tion of the circle, which was read before the Historic 
Society, in 1852. He says: "I accompanied Sir Henry 
Dryden to visit these remains in 1850. At that time 
there remained six stones upright, varying in height from 
one foot six inches to four feet, and in thickness from 
eleven inches to two feet. Judging from the relative 
distances of those remaining three stones have been 

* Now the Manchester College, Oxford (Unitarian). 


taken away. At one hundred and fifteen feet south-east 
from the circle is a single stone and at eighty-two feet 
south-west is another, and between these two stones is 
an assemblage of smaller stones only just appearing out 
of the boggy soil." 

It has long been supposed that this circle of upright 
stones was the only one on the site; indeed, the late 
Mr. Scholes, in his recently published History of Bolton, 
says (p. u) only one circle is known about Bolton. 

In June of last year, in company with Mr. Thomas 
Hardcastle, I visited the site, and noticed what was 
evidently another circle. This we perceived from the 
stones cropping up in places and from the nature of 
the turf. I find that the same opinion was formed by a 
member of 'the Manchester Literary Club (the late Mr. 
E. Kirk), who, in a paper read before the club, in 
November, 1878, says: "There are two circles, the more 
northerly formed of large individual stones, set diadem 
or corona fashion, the other of smaller stones, as if it had 
been a walled enclosure with a pile in the centre." This 
observation is quite correct, and a removal of the surface 
of the earth last June to a depth of three to six inches 
revealed a perfect stone-walled circle, as shown in the 
illustration. This circle is larger than the upright one, 
being exactly twenty-four yards across (the size of 
similar stone circles, ex. gr., the circle at Zennor, Corn- 
wall). It lies to the south-west of the upright circle and 
is twenty yards from the outlying westerly stone of same, 
and is twelve yards from the outlying southerly stone of 
same, and is on slightly higher ground than the first 
circle. The circle is faced on both inside and outside by 
large flat stones, and the space within is occupied by 
smaller stones. I can find no trace of mortar nor marks 
of tools, nor do I find any gateway or opening to the 


circle, although the whole of it has not yet been laid 
bare. The circling wall is of an average width or thick- 
ness of four feet. The stones are the ordinary grit stone 
of the district. The removal of part of the earth within 
the circle has shown a number of stones lying there and 
there is also a large collection in the exact centre. It is 
most symmetrically round, and the wall is very evenly 
and regularly constructed. 

I think there is no doubt but that it is of later date 
than the upright circle and may have been subsequently 
used as a place of worship. 

Possibly it may, in accordance with the theory of Dr. 
Colley March, have been a place for mortuary exposure 
before subsequent sepulture, and it is interesting to note 
that the Three Lowes in the valley below and about half 
a mile away are reputed Barrows. No bones or remains 
of any sort have yet been found, but so far only the 
upper surface lies exposed. Its situation and shape pre- 
clude the idea of its being a "sheep fold," and from its 
dimensions it is not likely to have been a watch tower or 
a "burgh." Possibly it may be the site of a collection 
of ancient British dwellings, clustered together, and 
defended by the enclosing wall. The owner, Mr. 
Hardcastle, intends to make careful excavations, and 
from these some further information and enlightenment 
will probably be thrown upon the origin of what is un- 
doubtedly a most interesting and important archaeological 



EUROPE in the middle ages, and indeed far into the 
modern period, was subject to awful visitations 
of disease, which are frequently referred to under the 
general name of plague and pestilence, though the suc- 
cessive epidemics may not be identical in character. The 
terms have not been used with any precise accuracy, and 
are applied to any instances of exceptional mortality. 
The bubo plague, however, has a recorded existence from 
the middle of the fourteenth century to beyond the 
middle of the seventeenth century. That Lancashire 
and Cheshire had their share of the earlier epidemics 
need not be doubted, but definite information is wanting 
before the Black Death. 

THE BLACK DEATH, 1349-52. 

Hecker regards 1347-50 as the period of the Black 
Death, and estimates that the deaths in Europe from 
it were twenty-five millions. The moral effects of the 
Black Death were notable. Fear killed many whom 


the disease might have spared. Evil-doers were seized 
with repentance or at least with dread. When this 
world seemed to be lost, the next acquired a fresh 
significance. Terror and disease gave a fearful activity 
to fanaticism, and there arose the wandering hordes 
of Flagellants, who punished themselves by many 
stripes for the sins of the people, which superstition 
regarded as the cause of the pestilence. These organisa- 
tions attracted the most opposite of characters. The 
riff-raff and the nobly born and delicately nurtured 
men, women, and children, nobles and serfs all joined 
the Brotherhood of the Cross. The Church, which in 
the first instance looked with suspicion on this formidable 
accession to the militant forces of religion, was unable to 
resist the general infection, and ecclesiastics of both 
sexes joined the pilgrimage of the Flagellants, which 
extended through Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bohemia, 
Silesia, and Flanders. 

We know from the chronicles that the Black Death 
raged throughout England, which, indeed, is said to 
have lost one-third of its inhabitants by the visita- 
tion. This plague originated in the countries of the 
east, and, travelling by the trade routes, reached Italy 
by Genoese ships from the Crimea. The epidemic 
caused great devastation, which has been described by 
Boccaccio and Petrarch. It reached Marseilles also 
by some Genoese ships, and in its course reached 
every country of Europe. This pestilence invaded 
England in the autumn of 1348. Calais, which was 
then in the hands of the English, was infected, and 
Jersey and Guernsey suffered greatly. In August the 
Bishop of Bath and Wells ordered stations and pro- 
cessions every Friday, and offered an indulgence of forty 
days to all who would fast, pray, or give alms for the 


avoidance of the threatened pestilence, which was 
regarded as a visitation of the anger of God. The inter- 
cession was in vain, and the plague entered the kingdom 
at Melcombe Regis in Dorsetshire. The weather was 
abnormally wet, there being rain almost every day from 
Midsummer to Christmas. The story of the Black 
Death in England has recently been retold by Dr. 
Gasquet, who has investigated in particular the data as 
to the mortality of the clergy. The benefices in 
Cheshire were about seventy. In June, July, August, 
and September there were thirty institutions in the 
archdeaconry of Chester. The non-beneficed clergy are 
not included. In August there was a new prioress at St. 
Mary's, Chester, and a new prior at Norton. There are 
also evidences of reduction of rent consequent upon the 
decreased value of farms. At Netherton, a year after 
the plague had been stayed, eleven houses and a great 
quantity of land, which fell into the hands of the lord of 
the manor through the pestilence, still remained in his 
possession. In Bucklow manor, at Michaelmas, 1350, 
there were two hundred and fifteen acres of arable land 
lying waste for which no tenants could be found through 
the pestilence. The rent of a garden was put down at 
twelvepence, because " there was no one to buy the 
produce." Forty-six tenants were killed by the plague 
and thirty-four were in arrears. One-third of the rent 
on this estate was remitted. 

Mr. A. G. Little has printed in the English Historical 
Review, July, 1890 (p. 524), the data submitted to a jury 
of eighteen who had been empannelled to settle a dispute 
between the Archdeacon of Richmond and Adam de 
Kirkham, Dean of Amounderness, touching the account 
rendered by the dean, as proctor for the archdeacon, of 
fees received for instituting to vacant livings, for probates 


of wills, and for administrations of the goods of intes- 
tates. The dean's account to the archdeacon is said to 
run "from the Feast of the Nativity of our Lady [8th 
September] in the year of our Lord 1349 mto tne 
eleventh day of January following." The archdeacon 
alleges what fees Adam de Kirkham has received, but 
had not accounted for, and the jury find what Adam did 
actually receive. Nine benefices of one kind or another 
are mentioned as vacant, three of them twice. The 
numbers said to have died in the several parishes, with 
the numbers of wills and of intestates' estates, are by Dr. 
Creighton tabulated as follows : 


Men and 
Women dead. 

With Wills 
(above 100 sh.). 

(above 100 sh.). 































St Michel 









On this Dr. Creighton remarks: "Of the alleged 300 
who died in Preston parish, leaving wills, five married 
couples are named, the probate fees being respectively 
j marc, 6 sh., 4od, 4 sh., and 4od. The archdeacon's 
whole claim for the 300 was 20 marcs, w r hich the jury 
reduced to 10 pounds. Of the alleged 200 intestates in 
the same parish, two married couples, one woman, and 
'Jakke o }?e hil' are named. In the parish of Garstang, 
the executors of 6 deceased are named, whose probate 
fees in all amounted to 16 sh. iod., the whole claim of 


the archdeacon for 400 deceased leaving wills being 10, 
and the award of the jury 20 sh. This was a parish in 
which 3000 are said to have died, the number of wills 
being not stated. The numbers had obviously been put 
in for a forensic purpose, and are, of course, not even 
approximately correct for the actual mortality, or the 
actual numbers of wills proved, or of letters of adminis- 
tration granted. The awards of the jury amounted in all 
to 48. los." The chapel of St. Mary Magdalen at 
Preston had remained unserved for seven weeks. Nine 
benefices had been vacant, three of them twice. At 
Lytham the priory was vacant, as also was that of 
Cartmel. One curious glimpse of the economical state 
of Lancashire we gather from the Statute of Labourers, 
which was intended to prevent that increase of wages 
arising from the scarcity of workmen. In common with 
the men of the counties of Stafford and Derby, the 
people of Craven, and those of the Welsh and Scotch 
Marches, the Lancashire labourers were allowed to go 
elsewhere in search of employment during the harvest 
time, "as they were wont to do before this time," and as 
the Irish harvestmen do in the present day (Creighton, 
p. 183; Rot. Part., ii. 234). 

Hollinworth records under the date of 1352 that a 
"Commission was granted by the Bishop of Lichfield 
for the dedication of the chappell yard of Didsbury, 
within the parish of Manchester, for the buriall of such 
as died of the pestilence in that hamlet, and in neigh- 
boring hamlets, in the chappell yard there, because of 
their distance from the parish church of Manchester." 
It seems strange that this arrangement should be so long 
after the pestilence. Is it a mistake in the date or is it a 
case of locking the stable door after the horse has been 
stolen ? 


1423. A precept, dated n Henry V. (A.D. 1423), was 
issued on the nth June of that year to the sheriff of the 
county, commanding him to cause proclamation to be 
made in all market towns and elsewhere within the 
county, that the sessions which were fixed to be holden 
at the town of Lancaster, on Tuesday, the morrow of 
St. Lawrence, should be there commenced, and thence 
adjourned to the Wednesday following to the town of 
Preston in Amounderness; because the king hath heard, 
both by vulgar report and the creditable testimony of 
honest men, that in certain parts of Lancashire, and 
especially in Lancaster, there was raging so great a 
mortality that a large portion of the people there from 
the corrupt and pestiferous air, infected with divers 
infirmities and deadly diseases, were dying rapidly, and 
the survivors quitting the place from dread of death, so 
that the lands remained untilled, and the most grievous 
desolation reigned where late was plenty. 

1485. A disease hitherto unknown, which, from its 
symptoms, was called the "sweating sickness," prevailed 
at this time in Lancashire, and in other parts of the 
kingdom (Baines, i., p. 243). 

1500. The plague broke out in Lancashire and was 
very virulent (Abram). 

1507. Chester did not escape from the new visitation 
of the "sweating sickness" in 1507, when ninety-one 
householders died in three days, "and but four of them 
widows" (Ormerod). 

1517. There was a "great plague" in Chester in 1517, 
so that "for want of trading the grass did grow a foot 


high at the cross, and other streets in the city" (Orme- 
rod, vol. i., p. 234). This Creighton thinks would be the 
true plague following the sweating sickness (p. 249). 

1540. It is said that Liverpool was nearly depopulated 
by the plague in this year (Abram). 

1548. In this year two hundred and fifty died, probably 
a quarter of the then population of Liverpool. 

1551. Dr. John Caius mentions that the sweating 
sickness of 1551 began at Shrewsbury, proceeding "with 
great mortalitie" to various places in Wales, then to 
Westchester and other places on the way to London, 
which it reached in July. The sickness was as swift as 
it was fatal. Some were destroyed by it "in opening 
their windowes; some in plaieing with children in their 
strete dores, some in one hour, many in two it destroyed, 
and at the longest to them that merilye dined, it gaue a 
sorrowful supper" (Book against the Sweate}. In the 
parish register of Ulverston is an entry that the great 
number of burials in that year (thirty-nine in August 
alone) was due to the visitation of the plague. 

1558. The plague of 1558 is described in the following 
passage of the Liverpool Corporation records: "This 
year and the year before was great sickness in Liver- 
poole, as was all the country of these parts in 
Lancashire, and specially a great plague in Manchester, 
by reason whereof this town was in great dread and fear; 
and on St. Lawrence's day was buried Mr. Roger 
Walker [who was mayor in 1553], and also a child of 
Nicholas Brayes, at the Pool House, the new house that 
Robert Corbett made, at the death of which said 


Brayes's child was great murmur and noise that the 
plague should be brought into that house by an Irish- 
man, one John Hughes, coming sickly from Manchester, 
and brought his linen clothes thither to be washed, 
which after could not be found true by no probation 
before Mr. Mayor then being, nor Mr. Mayor then next 
after, which was Mr. Corbett; but for all that, ever after 
that day, the whole town suspected it for the very plague 
and pestilence of God, because there was out of the same 
house buried, within five or six days late before 
persons;* and so after that it increased daily and daily 
to a great number, that died between the said St. 
Lawrence day and Martlemas then next after, the whole 
number of 240 and odd persons, under thirteen score; 
and that year was no fair kept at St. Martin's day, 
nor market till after the Christmas next " (Picton's 
Memorials of Liverpool, vol. i., p. 51). 

The accidental character of our knowledge of these 
visitations is illustrated by the fact that its local 
annalists have not mentioned this "great plague" in 

From Gregson we learn that the Liverpool burial-place 
for this plague was in the neighbourhood of Sawney 
Pope Street (Fragments). The manner in which the 
Liverpool authorities dealt with the difficulty is set forth 
in the following instructions: "It is ordered that all 
persons who may happen to be visited with the 
pestilence in the said town, that every one of them shall 
depart out of their houses and make their cabins on 
the Heath, and there to tarry from the feast of the 
Anunciation of our Lady until the feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel; and from the said feast of St. Michael 

Defect in the MS. 


unto the said feast of the Anunciation of Our Lady, to 
keep them on the back side of their houses, and keep 
their doors and windows shut on the street side until 
such time as they have licence from the Mayor to open 
them, and that they keep no fire in their houses, but 
between 12 and 3 of the clock at afternoon, and that no 
other person or persons be of family conversation or 
dwell with them upon pain of imprisonment; and to 
keep their own houses, and that they walk in no streets 
except for a reasonable cause; and their houses be 
cleaned, dressed or dyght with such as shall be appointed 
by Mr. Mayor for the safeguard of the town." 

The plague was in Chester in the same year. Few 
died, but many fled to escape the same (Ormerod, i. 235). 
In February, 1559, Cheshire is described in a state paper 
as "weakened by the prevalence of the plague" (Creigh- 
ton, p. 304). 

In 1561 there was issued "A newe booke conteyninge, 
an exortacion to the sicke." The tract ends with the 
following parody on the nostrums for the cure of the 
pestilence: "Take a pond of good hard penaunce, and 
washe it wel with the water of youre eyes, and let it ly a 
good whyle at your hert. Take also of the best fyne 
fayth, hope and charyte yt you can get, a like quantite 
of al mixed together, your soule even full, and use this 
confection every day in your lyfe, whiles the plages of 
god reigneth. -Then, take both your handes ful of good 
workes commaunded of God, and kepe them close in a 
clene conscience from the duste of vayne glory, and ever 
as you are able and se necessite so to use them. This 
medicine was found wryten in an olde byble boke, and it 


hath been practised and proved true of mani, both men 
and women" (Collier's Bib. Account, i. 74). 

1562. A "great plague" visited Preston in 1562, which 
was the year of the Guild Merchant. Of its effects no 
details are on record. 

1565. Hollinworth tells us that in "Anno 1565 there 
was a sore sicknesse in Manchester and about it, of which 
very many died." Baines states that this sickness 
greatly increased the effect of Dean Nowell's powerful 
preaching. "There is," adds Baines, "a very prevalent 
but obscure tradition in this neighbourhood that a plague 
prevailed here; it may have been this 'sore sickness,' or 
it may have been 'the plague of 1604,' as no one can 
assign the date; and on the road from Stretford to 
Manchester there is a stone, about three feet high, on 
the top of which are cut two small basons. It is called 
the 'plague-stone,' and it is said, at the time when this 
malady raged in Manchester, that these basons were 
filled with water. When the country people brought 
their provisions the purchasers put their money into one 
of the basons, to purify it from the pestilential touch of 
the townspeople, before it went into the hands of the 
farmers. There are several other stones about the town 
of a similar appearance, and, no doubt, applied .to the 
same purpose" (Baines, vol. i., p. 312). 

1574. A plague began in Chester in 1574, but resulted 
only in the death of some few in the Crofts (Ormerod, i. 
236). Canon R. H. Morris has given this account of it: 
" The plague visited Chester in 1574. The city authorities 
had for years past been active in checking the insanitary 
habits and practices of there fellow citizens, but the 


frequent presentation of offenders show how difficult it 
was at that to enforse the rules on an indifferent and 
ill-instructed populace. When the terrible visitation 
came, it appears to have been a common practice to put 
up palisading to isolate houses from the dangers of con- 
tagion ; and leases of this time invarably contain a 
provision prohibiting palisading or hoarding within the 
city, saving only in time of pestilence."* Persons were 
bound in heavy sums not to receive any lodgers coming 
from suspected neighbourhoods, and the mayor, Sir John 
Savage, issued a number of strict regulations for coping 
with the danger.t A complaint from several persons in 

* Tabulas roboreas palos aut perticas sive sepam circundere nisi 
solamodo tempore pestilencie infra civitatem. 

f " 17 Eliz [1574] Roger Calcot bound in 10 not by himself or by any 
other person for him at any other tyme or tymes hearafter receyue 
or lodge in his house or any other place of his any manner of person or 
persons which shall come out of the Realme of Ireland or from the cities 
of London and Bristol or either of them or out of or from any other 
place suspected to be infected with the desease called the plague without 
the licens of the maior of the City of Chester for the tyme being or in 
his absens, of the Justices of pease in the same citie. 8 Nov [1574] The 
right worshipful Sir John Sauage, knight, maior of the City of Chester 
had consideracion of the present state of the said citie somewhat visited 
with what is called the plage, and divisinge the best meanes and orderlie 
waies he can, with [the advice] of his Bretheren the alderman, Justices of 
peace within the citie aforesaid (through the goodness of God) to avoid 
the same hath with such advice, sett forth ordained and appointed 
(amongst others) the points, articles, clauses, and orders folowing, which 
he willeth and commandeth all persons to observe and kepe, upon the 
severall pains therein contayned : 

"Imprimis. That no person nor persons who are or shalbe visited 
with the said sickness, or any others who shall be of there company, 
shall go abrode out of there houses without licence of the alderman of 
the ward such persons inhabite, And that every person soe licensed to 
beare openlie in their hands . . . three quarters long . . . ense 

. . shall goe abrode out of the ... upon paine that eny person 
doynge the contrary to be furthwith expulsed out of the said citie. 

" 2. Item if any person doe company with any persons visited, they 
alsoe to beare . . . upon like payne 

" 3. Item that none of them soe visited doe goe abroad in any part or 
place within the citie in the night season, upon like payne. 


Pepper Street show how these regulations were in 
practice, or neglected to the common danger.* 

1576. The plague was at Northwich in 1576, and the 
house of Phil. Antrobus being infected most of the family 
died. Household linen, valued at 135. 4d., was put into 
the river to prevent further use, and sixteen years later 
the son claimed compensation for this destruction of 
property (Creighton, p. 340; Calendar of State Papers: 
Domestic, 1591-94, p. 269). 

"4. Item that the accustomed due watche to be kepte every night, 
within the said citie, by the inhabitents thereof 

" 5. Item the same watchman to apprehend and take up all night 
walkers and such suspect as shalbe founde within and to bring them to 
the Justice of peace, of that . . . the gaile of the Northgate, that 
further order may be taken with them as shall appear . . '. 

"6. Item that no swine be kept, within the said citie nor any other 
place, then . . . side prively nor openlie after the xiiith daie of this 
present moneth, upon paine of fyne and imprisonment of every person 
doing the contrary. 

" 7. Item that no donge, muck or filth, at any tyme, hearafter be caste, 
within the walls of the said citie, upon paine of ffyne and imprisonment 
at his worships direction. 

"8. Item that no kind or sort of ... or any wares from other 
place be brought in packs into the said citie of Chester, untill the same be 
ffirste opened and eired without the libities of the said citie, upon paine 
last recited. 

"9. Item that papers or writing containing this sence Lord haue 
mercie upon us, to be fixed upon euery house, dore post, or other open 
place, to the the street of the house so infected. 

"10. Item that no person of the said citie doe suffer any their doggs to 
goe abrode out of there houses or dwellings, upon paine that euery such 
dogge so founde abrode shalbe presently killed. And the owners thereof 
ponished at his worships pleasure." 

*"i To the right worshipful Sir John Savage, knight, maior of the 
Citie of Chester the aldermen, sheriffs, and common counsaile of the 

" In most humble wise complayninge sheweth unto your worships, your 
Orators the persons whose names are subscribed inhabiting in a certain 
lane within the same citie called Pepper Street, That where yt haue 
pleased God to infect divers persons of the same Street with the plage, 
and where also for the avoidinge of further infection your worships have 
taken order that all such so infected should observe certaine good 


In the Hawkshead parish register, under date of 
November, 1577, is the entry: "In this month began 
the pestilent Sickness in this Parishe, which was brought 
in by one George Barwick, whereof is deceased those 
that are thus markt." The number of burials so marked 
is thirty-eight. 

1588. Hollinworth states that seventy of the parishio- 
ners of Manchester died in the month of April. 

1594. "The sicknesse was in Faylesworth, in Clough 
House" (Hollinworth). 

1601. The plague was at Liverpool in 1601. 

1603. Of the visitation of the plague in Chester during 
1603 we have this account: "The 22nd of August, in the 
night time, a wonderful exhalation of a fiery colour, like- 
wise a canopy, was seen over this city; and in September 
following the great plague began in Chester, in one 
Glover's house, in St. John's Lane." In the MS. of 
Rogers it is added that "seven persons died in a short 
time out of this house, and that the plague kept in- 

necessaarye orders by your worships made and provided. But so it is, 
right worships, that none of the said persons infected do observe any 
of the orders by your worships in that case taken, to the greate danger 
and perill,, not only of your Orators and their famelyes being in number 
twenty, but also of the reste of the said citie, who by the sufferance of 
God and of his gracious goodness are clere and safe from any infection 
of the said deceas : In consideration whereof your Orators moste humbly 
beseche your worships for Gods sake, and as your worships intend it your 
Orators should by the sufferance of God avoide the dangers of the said 
deceas with their family and also for the better safty of the citie to take 
such directions with the said infected persons that they may clearly be 
avoided from thens to some other convenient for the time untill God 
shall restore them to their former health. And in this doing your Orators 
shall daily pray &c. ROBT PHILLIPS, PETER HUES. Chester in the 
Plantagenet and Tudor Periods, by Rupert H. Morris, 1894, pp. 78-79. 


creasing until sixty died weekly. Michaelmas fair was 
not kept this year on account of the plague. The 
infected persons were taken out of their houses and 
conveyed into houses and cabins built at the water side, 
near unto the New Tower, and were there relieved at the 
cost of the city. Nothing of importance passed because 
of the plague increasing among us, only the High Cross 
was new gilt ; to whom let it be memorable that liketh 
thereof; there died of the plague in this city, from Mr. 
Glasier's time (mayor year previous) until the I3th of 
October, 650, and other diseases 61 " (Rogers's MSS.). 

Macclesfield and Congleton also suffered. Mr. Ear- 
waker tells us that "The authorities of the town and the 
county magistrates, Sir Urian Legh, of Adlington, Knt., 
Thomas Stanley of Alderley, and Randle Davenport of 
Henbury, Esqs., were very active to prevent it spreading, 
and in a MS. volume now preserved at Capesthorne is an 
account of the precautions which were taken: 'Watch 
and ward was kept at every common passage out of the 
towne and at cross lanes neare adjoyning to ye towne to 
keepe in ye Townsmen.' 'A markett every Munday was 
kept in an open place 3 quarters of a Myle from ye 
Towne where 2 or 3 of the Justices were weekly present 
to see ye towne and country kept asunder and to se ye 
money, corne, and other provision distributed which 
came from ye country either by tax or guift.' 'The 
justices had weekly notice which streets were infected, 
how many houses in every street, how many person in 
each house and ye ability (for health) of ye parties.' 
'The justices had every markett a bill [or list] of ye 
names of such as dyed the weeke before.' Under date of 
June 17, 1604, there is an entry in the parish register 
of the death of 'Dominick, a gentleman that dyed at 
Mrs. Brereton's, of Edge, of a plague of pestilence,' and 


on the 22nd of the same month another entry of Thomas 
Plymley, servant to Mrs. Brereton, of the same malady. 
In this same year the plague continued still in Chester, 
increasing every week, for the weekly accounts were too 
tedious to repeat, tho' I could express it very near; but 
from the i4th of October to the 2oth of March 812 
persons died" (Rogers's MSS). 

During 1603-4 "the fourth of a Mize was levied 
through the country ' for the relief of the infected townes 
of Macclesfeld and Congleton.' The order is preserved in 
Harl. MS. 2,090, fol. 26-8, together with the amounts 
collected in each Hundred. The following contributions 
were made by the several townships round Congleton: 
' 1000 loaves, 1000 pails of milk, 50 pails of Milk 
Porridge, 150 good cheeses, 50 pieces of beef, 6 flitches 
of bacon, one great bun, 10 oatcakes, 100 puddings, 
several bear pies, pasty pies, and a gallon of butter" 
(Head's Congleton, Past and Present, p. 71). 

The Manchester Court Leet Records, under date of 6th 
October, 1603, there is a passing reference to "theise 
dangerous tymes of Infeccon." 

1604. In 1604 Nantwich was visited by the plague. 
The Wilbraham MS. Journal says: " yt uppon St. 
Peters Day [June 2gth] 1604 there began a great 
plague in this Towne of Namptwiche, w ch continued 
about six monthes, whereof there died in that space 
about 500 people, and soe by Gods mercifful providence 
the plague ceased." The parish register gives a fuller 
account: "1604 July. This yeare together with the 
former yeare and the yeare followinge this Realme of 
England was vissited with a contagious plauge generally, 
whereof many thousands in London, and other Townes 
and Cities died of the same. The said plauge begane in 


our Towne of Namptwich about the 24th of June 1604, 
being brough [t] out of Chester and here dispersed 
diversely, soe y l presently our Market was spoyled, the 
town abandoned of all the wealthy inhabitants : who fledd 
for refuge into diuers places of the country adioyninge. 
But of those which remained at home ther Dyed from 
the I2th June till the 2nd of March followinge about the 
number of 430 persons of all deceases. Now seeing god 
in mercy hath withdrawn his punishing hand, and hath 
quenched the spark of contagious infection among us. 
God graunt that we by Repentaunce may prevent further 
punishment and that the remembrance of this plauge 
past, may remain in our hearts for that purpose for ever. 
Amen." No marriage register was kept in 1604; the 
baptisms are wanting from August I2th to the roth 
March following. Three hundred and sixty-six burials, 
of which none are expressly said to have died of this 
horrible disease, are recorded. The clerk has notified 
this irregularity in keeping the parish books, accounting 
for it " by reason of the plauge which hinder'd the 
good procedeinge of the Regester for that yeare " (Hall's 
Nantwich, p. 113). 

To meet the distress a county rate, amounting to 
"halfe the whole pay mt of the myze," appears to have 
been levied; and Harl. MSS. 2090, /. 18-20, contain 
" various sums of money collected in Macclesfield 
Hundred &c. by order of Sessions holden at Chester 
10 Oct 1604, towards the relief of the towns of 
Namptwiche and Northwyche, infected with the 
Plague." The constables of the hundreds, who collected 
the rate, paid the moneys to appointed receivers, 
and presented their accounts to the magistrates, 
who paid over the sums for the purpose intended at 
various times. Thus about August, 1605, the following 


sums were disbursed from Macclesfield hundred (2. I2s. 
nd. then remaining to be collected): " Impr. to 
m r Delues his man for the Namptwich vi 11 [6] Item, 
deliuered to S r Urian Leigh w ch was lykewise p d vnto mr 
Delues his man v h [5]." 

For months after the town was freed from the infec- 
tion, all persons leaving the town were required to produce 
certificates of removal. Thus* "Richard Maisterson and 
13 other residents bailis and constables of Nantwich 
to the Justices of the Peace gentry and inhabitants 
of Manchester, Being required to certify our knowledge 
touching the behaviour of John Warrant, Henry Brooke, 
Ellen Foulke, and Cicely Smith, late of this town, and 
now in Macnh r , while the sickness remained here, we 
certify that in the last visitation, they were severally 
visited with the sickness, and that during that time they 
demeaned themselves orderly, without doing anything 
that might breed any danger or infection to their 
neighbours. Nantwich 31 July 1605." 

1605. In 1605, in consequence of the plague being at 
Chester, the court of exchequer was removed to Tarvin, 
and the county assizes were held at Nantwich (Hall's 
Nantwich, 114, 115). 

Mr. Earwaker states that towards the end of 1605 a 
very severe visitation of the plague appears to have 
attacked Stockport, and the registers record that between 
the gth of October, 1605, and the i/j-th August, 1606, 
fifty-one persons died of it. He cites the following 
entries : 

"Madd Marye was buryed the gth October, 1605, of the 
plague. Thomas, the reputed sonne of Thos. Rodes, of 
Stockport, suspected to dye of it, was buried 26th October, 

* Calendar of State Papers, Addenda Jac. I., vol. xxxviii., p. 478 (1580-1625). 


1605. John, the sonne of Richard Jackson of Tadcaster, 
in the countie of Yorke, a Dresser of Houses infected with 
the plague, was baptized the yth February, 1605. James, 
sonne of James Williamson of Stockport, Alderman, dyed 
of the plague, and was buried the 2Oth Julye, 1606. Roger 
Orme of Stockport, dyed of the plague, buried August i, 

1606. John Oldham of Stockport, belman, died of the 
plague, buried I4th August, 1606." 

The plague was even more severe in Macclesfield. 
The entries in the register are headed, "Burials in 
Macclesfelde since God's visitation." They are closely 
written on two pages of the register, and from Septem- 
ber 3rd to October 3rd are over seventy entries. Whole 
families appear to have died. It was most active in 
certain streets, Dog Lane [now Stanley Street], Back 
Street [now King Edward Street], and Mylne Street 
[Mill Street]. 

At Manchester, "Anno 1605, the Lord visited the 
town (as 40 years before and 40 years after) with 
a sore pestilence; there died 1000 persons, amongst 
whom were Mr. Kirke, Chaplain of the College, and his 
wife and four children. All the time of the Sickness Mr. 
Burn preached in the town so long as he durst (by reason 
of the unruliness of the infected persons and want of 
Government), and then he went and preached in a field 
near to Shooter's Brook, the Town's people being on one 
side him and the country people on the other " (Hollin- 
worth's Mancuniensis). This courageous divine was the 
Rev. William Bourne, B.D., Fellow of the Collegiate 

A weekly tax was levied on the inhabitants of Man- 
chester, some time previous to 1606, for the relief of 
the poor infected or suspected of being infected with 
the plague (Creighton, p. 499, Cal. State Papers, Add. 


1580-1625). [This I think is a mistake for 1608. See 
under that year.] 

The Michaelmas court leet was not held owing to plague. 
"It appears from the Burial Register of the Collegiate 
Church that by July 2ist, 1605, 500 persons had been 
buried, by August 2Oth, 700, and that by Jan i7th 
1605-6 the number of 1000 had been reached. Nearly 
all of these had died of the Plague, but towards 
December those who had died from other causes are 
distinguished by the words 'not of y e plague' added 
after their names" (Manchester Court Leet Records). 

There has been preserved in the State Paper Office "a 
note of the money layde out," ist February to 5th March, 
1605- [6] . The following entries show the cost of the 
plague to the town authorities : 

Imp'mis for coales to y e Pesthouse xvj d 

It m for bearinge a ffardell of clothes to 

the Pesthouse iij d 

- to John browne and his wyffe* - - iiij s 

- to John Walker and his wyffet - iiij s viiij d 

- to y e Pesthouse - vii s viii d 

- p d for wyndinge Raphe DiconsonJ - viii 
pd strawe to y e Pesthouse for Mar- 

shalls ffolkes iiij d 

Peyd for 3 loades of coales to y e Pest- 
house - , - ij s 
Itm payd for drincke y e same nighte wee 
Removed wydow m r shall to ye 
Pesthouse - - - vij d 

* There are three more payments to this couple. 

f There are two more payments to this couple. 

I He was buried at Collegiate Church, iath February. 


Itm payd to two for helping to beare 

Anne Bibbye to ye churche* - viiij d 

- payd for coales to ye Pesthouse xvj d 

- p d to ye dressers for bearinge widow 

m r shall and for goods to ye pest- 
house - - viij s v d 
pd to ye pesthouse and for ye wyndinge 

and buryenge of wydow m'shall - x s v d 

- pd the 20 of feb for coales to the 

Pesthouse - xvj d 

Itm to those at the Pesthouse - vij s 

- for coales xvj d 

- paid for Mr ffoxe pte of the Rente of 

y e Pesthouse - iij s iiij d 

- payde to Wylde vj d 

- payde . . . for ye pest howse - iiij s ix d 

- paid to John Dawber and his wyffe - iiij s viij d 

- payd for writing a note to gyve 

warninge for vnlawfull assembles - ij d 

- payd for attendinge of M'shalls boyes xii d 

- layd out and lent to Marshall ssonnes ij s 

- giu' in turves and candles ij d - iij d 

(Manchester Constables' Accounts, ii. 155-161). 

This epidemic led to the passing of an order of the 
court leet, 24th April, 1606, by which " Assistantes to 
the Constables to have the care of all those inhabitants 
of this towne who have recourse to any places suspected 
to be infected or that come from any places infected" 
were appointed (Manchester Court Leet Records}. 

In 1608 about fourteen persons died in Chester of the 
plague which began at the "Talbot." 

* Buried 3ist January. 


There was "a taxation layd by the Justices of the 
Peace, Constables of Manchester and other the Inhaby- 
tance" which was collected weekly for the relief of the 
poor infected and suspected. This document, dated i6th 
May, 1608, is the only reference to the existence or 
suspicion of plague in that year. 

1610. Many died of the plague in Chester this year 
(Ormerod, vol. i., p. 239). 

In this year a lay of half a fifteenth was charged upon 
townships in East Lancashire "to the relief of the 
infected of the Plague in the several towns of Liverpool, 
Uxton [Euxton], and others" (Shuttle-worth Accounts). 

1613. Under date 8th April, 1613, there is passing 
reference to "ye last sickens" in the Manchester Court 
Leet Records. 

1623. The Blackburn parish registers for the year 1623 
prove a great mortality in that year. The average 
number of burials yearly at Blackburn Parish Church at 
this period was about one hundred and ten to one 
hundred and twenty (one hundred and twenty-two in 
1625), but in 1623 (from January, 1622-3, to December, 
1623) there are as many as four hundred and ten burials; 
being about three hundred in excess. The baptisms for 
the year were one hundred and thirty-three, which at the 
rate of thirty-three births to one thousand living persons 
would give a population for the town and townships 
near of about four thousand. The mortality was at its 
highest in the last three months of 1623: sixty corpses 
were buried in October, fifty-five in November, sixty-six 
in December. Four burials took place on Christmas eve 


and five on Christmas day. Numerous members of the 
families of the local gentry died, as well as of the towns- 
folk, traders, and cottagers (Abram). 

1623. Bolton is said to have lost one-third of its 
inhabitants. The number of burials in the parish 
churchyard was nearly five hundred (Abram). 

1623. The Rochdale parish register records a great 
mortality from August, 1623, to February, 1623-4. 
Nothing is said as to the cause. The registers show 
that in 1622 there were two hundred and fifteen chris- 
tenings, two hundred and one burials, and thirty-five 
weddings. During the year 1623 no less than five 
hundred and eighty-seven people were buried at the 
parish church, of whom close upon five hundred died 
between the ist July and the end of February. Early 
in 1624 the sickness left the district; the burials in 
that year were only one hundred and fifty (Fishwick's 
Rochdale, p. 54). 

1625. At Malpas in 1625 the plague was very virulent. 
The entries begin with the deaths of Thomas Jefferie, 
servant ; Thomas Dawson, of Bradley ; and Richard 
Dawson, his son, buried in the nights of the loth 
and I3th of August ; after which occurs the name of 
Ralph Dawson, also son of Thomas, who ''came from 
London about the 25th July last past, and being sicke of 
the plague died in his father's howse, and infected the 
saide howse, and was buryed, as was reported, neare 
unto his father's howse." Then follow the burials of 
Thomas Dawson, August I5th, at three o'clock after mid- 
night; Elizabeth, his daughter, August 2Oth; and Annie, 
his wife, the same day. Then comes the pathetic 


record that " Richard Dawson, brother to the above- 
named Thomas Dawson, of Bradley, being sicke of the 
plague, and perceyveing he must die at yt time, arose out 
of his bed, and made his grave, and caused his nefew, 
John Dawson, to cast strawe into the grave, w'ch was 
not farre from the howse, and went and layd him down in 
the sayd grave, and caused clothes to be layd uppon, and 
so dep'ted out of this world ; this he did because he was 
a strong man, and heavier than his said nefew and 
another wench were able to bury. He died about the 
XXIVth of August. Thus much was I credibly tould he 
did 1625. . . . John Dawson, sonne of the above- 
mentioned Thomas, came unto his father when his 
father sent for him, being sicke, and haveyng layd him 
down in a dich, died in it the XXIXth day of August, 
1625, in the night. Rose Smyth, servant of the above- 
named Thomas Dawson, and the last of yt household, 
died of plague and was buried by Wm. Cooke, the Vth 
daye of September, 1625, near unto the saide howse." 

Another entry shows that the plague continued its 
ravages to the middle of October, 1625: "gth Oct. 
Mawde, the wyfe of Henry Glutton. Her husband and 
sister buried her. A childe of Henry Glutton's, that died, 
as it is thought, of plague, buried XHIIth daye of 
October, 1625. Its aunt and another wench buried it. 
Nihil pro eccl'ia." 

The manner in which the local authorities dealt with 
an expected invasion of the plague is shown in the 
following extracts from the Court Leet Records: 

October 6th, 1625. "The Jurye consideringe the greate 
danger w ch may ensue by resort of strangers and bringinge 
in of wares from infected places. Therefore the Jurye doe 
order that there shalbee sufficient ward and watche kept 
within this Towne And that the constables shall apoint to 


keepe ward such householders as they in theire discrecons 
shall thincke fittinge and that euie pson refuseinge to keepe 
ward in his own pson or some sufficient <pson as he will 
answere for, haveinge a days warninge shall forfeit for 
euie such refuseing v s 

"And further the Jurye doe order that there shalbee a 
taxe or lay of some sufficient some or somes of money to 
hire sufficient men to keepe watche in the night vntill 
such time as further course shalbee taken by the steward 
Constables and sixe of this Jurye." 

"The Jurye of this present Leete duelie consideringe 
the great perell of theis contagious tymes And the 
fearefull miseries whervnto the poore inhabitants of this 
towne are like to be exposed if Almightie god doe 
send the plague of pestilence amongst is earnestlie 
desireinge (if it bee gods good will) to pr'ent the first or 
to the latter by good order to give some ease (if god doe 
soe afflict vs) have thought fitt to nominate and doe 
hereby order and apoint theis twelve p'sons whose names 
are herevnder written to be aydinge and assistant to the 
Constables and to doe in theire seuall devisions as 

" ffirst that once in euie weeke (at the least) either 
jointlie or seiiallie in theire seuall devisions enquirie 
shalbee made (by them the said officers) in euie house 
and familye what p'sons or goods are intertayned to 
lodge inhabite or bee in the said house or familye and if 
it shall appeare that any such p'son or p'sons or other 
thinge bee intertayned or received as may bee p'illous or 
noysome vnto this towne the same p r sentlie to be made 
knoune vnto the Constables and such speedie course to 
bee taken for the removeale of the said danger either by 
imprisonm 1 of the partye giveinge such intertaynem 1 or 
by shuttinge vp his doores or otherwise as by lawe 


or direcc'ons from the Judges of the Assizes or the 
Justices of the peace is p'mitted. 

"Yt is further ordered that the said officers shall once 
eliie three months at the least in theire seuall devisions 
make due inquirie howe many familyes of poore labour- 
inge people is w th in theire seuerall devisions, by whom 
such famelies are set to worke and if any in the famelie 
have abilitie of bodye and not whereon to worke. The 
same <pson to be certefied by name and to what familey 
the same j)son (hee or shee) Doth belonge Together also 
with the names of such men of wealth and habilitie w th in 
the said devisions as are fitt to bee charged w th the 
imploym 1 and reliefe of the said able poore (the first 
enquirie and certificate to bee taken and made to the 
Churchwardens for the time beinge within 14 dayes next 

"Theis officers are to continue in theire said office 
vntill the next Leete and so many more are then to be 
chosen to succeed in this office and that none shall refuse 
the said office or bee necligent sub pa v s 

"The officers names and the severall diuitions given 
them in charge. 
"Smithidore, Deansgate Hud- j Francis Mosley John Gee 

sons land and so to Salford 1- Raphe Cheetam 

bridge J 

"S* Mariegate Marketstid cum ) Geffrey Croxton 

Marketstidlane ffleshbords r Lawrence Owen 

Conditt and -Mealegate J Roger Bowringe 

" Withengreave Hanginge ditch ( Thomas Lancashire 

Toad lane et ffenelstreete -j Charles Costeer 

I Roger Worthington 
"Milngate Huntsbanke Church / Richard Chorlton 

y rd side cum Halfe streete { John Barlowe 

( Henry Keley." 


The following entries from the Manchester Constables' 
Accounts (vol i., p. 154, et seq.) refer to the plague: 

14 Oct 1624 to 5 Oct 1625. p d and given 
the abousaid seventeene shillings ffower 
pence vnto william Scholes in recom- 
pence for his paynes taken in buryinge 
off his sonne and towords the losse off 
the clothes w ch weare buryed with him 
w ch is allowed him p the consent off 
the Jury - 17" 4 d 

13 Dec 1625. Red of a booke for a laye 
Made of williame Crampton and 
Thomas woffenden Misegathe r ars for 
contynveinge of the watche synce 
Micheallmase last as maye appeaire by 
an order made in the courte booke at 
the leete in October 1625 tne so - 07.02.02 

19 Oct. 1625. p d a Messenger the Con- 
stables of Stoppord sent to o r Con- 
stables to Cartiefie against infectiouse 
goods in xij packes newlie comne from 
London and thoe: it were night were 
put out of y e towne - 00.6 

25 Feb 1625-6. By Vertewe of An order 
Made at oure Courte Leet Houlden in 
octob r a5 1625 John Beswicke Con- 
stable last yeare p d Six me toe watche 
sixpence a night everay ma And p d vi d 
to the depewtie to wa r ne them and 
oftentymes to goe toe se them keepe 
trewe watch beginninge the xj th daye of 
November and contynveinge till the 
xx th December next ffolloweinge w ch 
came toe the some of - - 03.05.4 


1630-1. The Kirkham parish book records: "This 
year (1630-1) was a great Plague in Kirkham, in which 
the more part of the people of the town died thereof. 
It began about the 25th July, and continued vehemently 
until Martinmas, but was not clear of it before Lent; 
and divers towns of the parish was infected with it, and 
many died thereof out of them, as Treales, Newton, 
Grenall, Estbrick, Thistleton. The great mortality was 
in the year 1631 ; 304 died that year, and were buried at 
Kirkham, of whom 193 died in the months of August and 

The records of the sworn men contains the following 
entries in 1632: 

Given to the preacher that went from church to 
church at the request of vicar and 30 men. 

Paid for perfuming the church xxx s 
for carrying the rushes out of the church in the 
sickness time v s 

Spent at Hambleton the day of thanksgiving after 
sickness ii s (Fishwick's Kirkham, 97, 98). 

The Preston Guild order book contains this record: 
" Sexto et Septimo Caroli R R's. The great Sickness of 
the Plague of Pestilence, wherein the number of Eleven 
Hundred p'sons and upwards died within the town 
and p'ish [parish] of Preston, began about the tenth 
day of November, in anno 1630, and continued the 
space of one whole yeare nexte after. Will'm Preston, 
Maior" (Abram's Memorials of the Preston Guilds, p. 42). 

The accounts record several items paid by the 
Manchester constables "for Preston." Mr. Earwaker 
conjectures that they refer to an outbreak of the plague 
in that town (Constables' Accounts, i. 256). 


In 1630 53 was gathered at Chester for the relief of 
Preston and other places afflicted with the plague, and 
43 the year following, the plague increasing in Man- 
chester, Wrexham, Shrewsbury, &c., but Cheshire is 
stated to have escaped altogether (Ormerod, vol. i., 
p. 240). 

In consequence of the prevalence of the plague 
in neighbouring shires, counties, and towns, Viscount 
Cholmondeley issued a proclamation, dated I3th August, 
1631, prohibiting "all man. [manner] of p'sons. fforens 
[foreigners] strang 8 and others that lyve in anye remote 
shires counties or townes, or in or neere to any place 
infected that they and eu'y of them abstaine and forbeare 
to come vnto the said towne and faire for the space of 
fyve dayes, to wytt the faire daye and foure dayes nexte 
after" (Hall, p. 129). 

Manchester had a narrow escape, for Hollinworth 
records) "Anno 1631. The Lord sent his destroying 
angell into an inne in Manchester, on which died 
Richard Meriot and his wife, the master and dame of the 
house, and all that were in it, or went into it, for certaine 
weekes together, till, at the last, they burned or buried 
all the goods in the house; and yet, God in midst of 
judjement did remember mercy, for no person else was 
that yeare touched with the infection." 

The following entries in the Constables' Accounts show 
that some persons suspected of infection were isolated in 
the wooden houses provided for the purpose : 

24 July. Itm p d and giuen to them the s d 
ffornace [Tho.J [Geo.] Allen &c. [8 
persons] to cause them to retorne 
whence they Came because they were 
Suspected to haue beene in Some 
Infected place - - oi.oo.o 


15 Oct. Rece d of Robert! Taylo r of ouldam 
by an order from the Bench towards 
the mayntenance of his wiffe att the 
cabbins - 03.06.8 

27. Rec d of mr Jo. Gilliam ffor monie w ch 
was restinge in his hands of the Taxe 
for the sicknes - - 05.16.5 

R d of the Mysgatherrers and by o r selves, 
outt of the first laye, w ch was by order 
of the bench for the releefe and watch- 
inge of those att Cabbins as appeareth 21.11.11 

20 Oct. 1631. P d John Kempe for puition 
[provision] for Diet for y e people at 
Collihust and for watch and warde for 
2 men for day and night to wit 21, 22, 
23 Octob r y e som of - - oi.oi.o 

26 Oct. p d John Kempe w ch hee Disburseed 
for strawe and other nessessaries for 
people at Collihurst - - 00.10.3 

29. p d John Kempe for meate and drinke 
for v psons at Collihurst for 7 dayes to 
wit from 24 till 31 of Octob r 4 s 2 d day 
is - 01.09.2 

There are very many entries either stated to be for 
the Collyhurst cabins, or probably so, as for coals, 
candles, firepot, meate and drinke, thread, turf, soap, &c. 
There are none later than January, 1631-2. 

28 Jan. 1631-2. p d Mr Rob 1 Langlye for ye 
Rent of y e house for those that came 
from ye Cabbines - 00.08.0 

30 Mar 1631-2. R d of the Cunstables of 
Salford by an order from the Bench 
w ch they repaid backe of the monie w ch 


they have Rec d aboue there <pportionable 
rate out of the greate taxe for the 
sicknes the some of - 06.13.4 

There are other references to this great tax. Collections 
were made for those infected at Preston, Manchester, 
and other places (Creighton, p. 527; Hist. MSS. Comui., 
ii. 258). 

In 1631 the plague broke out in Dalton and in Biggar, 
and in the Isle of Walney, and produced a dreadful mor- 
tality. It is recorded that "there died in Dalton of the 
plague three hundred and sixty, and in Walney, 120." 
The malady made its first appearance in July, and ceased 
about the Easter following. A mound of earth on the 
east side of the churchyard is supposed to point out the 
burial-place of the victims (Baines, vol. i., p. 648). 

1640. An alarm of plague is evidenced by these entries 
in the Manchester Constables' Accounts: 

Nov. Ward was kept to prevent infected 

goods arriving. 
7 Nov. It' p d fr: gorton and his ptner for 

warding 3 dayes 3 s 

It p d Edw: Rausthorne and his ptner for 

wardinge 7 dayes at hyde Crosse 7 s 

1641. The second and more disastrous visitation 
occurred in the early winter of 1641, and, despite the 
precautions adopted by the inhabitants, its deadly in- 
fluence soon spread : 

ii Nov. ffor eleaven days warding in 
Regard of the sickness then suspected 
neare Namptwich and In Newcastle 6 d 
a daie - 00.05.6 



27 Nov. paide to Jno. Bulckley, Ralph 
Brodhurst and Jno. Parnell ffor watch- 
ing and warding 6 days and nights - 00.06.0 

The infection was raging with fatal results about the 
county for some time before it reached Congleton, and 
in the year 1637 tne following restrictive by-law was 
enacted under John Bradshaw, then mayor: "And in 
regarde that the dangers of the tymes, by reason of the 
Contagion of the Sicknes in neighbour contries, It beinge 
requisit that some good orders shoulde be made for 
p r vention as much as maie be of the approachinge danger 
which by God's grace and blessinge maie be the better 
prevented by due care taken in that behalfe. It is their- 
fore thought fitt and so ordered that no Inholder, Ale 
house Keeper, Victualler or other pson of this Towne 
whatsoever shall lodge, or receive into his or theire 
houses, anie carrier, maltster or other pson travellinge 
hither from Darbey, or from anie other place infected or 
suspected, and generally reported to be Infected whatso- 
ever, or receive anie corne, graine, malte or other Com- 
modity from anie comon carrier that shall not bring with 
him a sufficient certificate that the same malte, graine, 
or other comoditie came not from anie place Infected or 
suspected (as aforsaid) and make oathe conserninge the 
same, if he be theireunto required by suche as shalbe 
appoynted for that purpose upon payne of forfeyture for 
evrie such offence, Twentie shillings and that everie 
suche pson soe refusinge to take his oathe (as aforsaid) 
shall ymediatly be comitted to prison at the discrecion 
of the Maior and Justices, or anie of them, or otherwise 
with his horses and carriage (if he have anie) to be 
conveyed out of the Towne by the officers, warders 
or watchmen." 



The tradition is that the infection was conveyed from 
London to this district (some accounts say to North 
Rode) in a box of wearing apparel. The sickness had 
reached the town a few days before Christmas, and 
attacked the family of one Laplove, several of whom 
soon became its victims. 

1641 Dec 18. to Wm. Hollinshed ffor 
watching Laploves house too dayes 
and nights 2 s the sickness there ap- 
pd. for Inkle to lye the Ded corpes att 

Laploves 8 d and for cording 4 d - - oo.oi.o 
ffor a Ladder to carrie the corpse to ye grave 00.00.10 

The plague spread from house to house, carrying off 
whole families, so that the town became deserted, and 
the streets were overgrown with grass. None ventured 
abroad but those who, reckless of life, staggered from 
cabin to cabin laden with the dead, which were "either 
put naked into a carte or else wrapped round with a 
windinge sheet and then drawn to ye grave dug either in 
ye Church yarde or in another place, and there put in 
ande covered with earth without sayinge anye ceremonye 

Here are two grim entries: 

Dec 28. to James Ingam for a peare of 
wheeles and Axle trees to Draw ye ^ 
Ded to ye Grave - 01.09.0 

Dec 28. to Adam Okes ffor a whit nagg to 

draw the corps to Astbry (Astbury) 1.08.0 

To stay the contagion every ingenious method was 
adopted, and those exchanging money for goods dropped 
their coins into water before the other party would handle 
it. By means of tongs articles were held at arm's length 


in the fire, and then placed on the ground for the 
customer to take up. There are still "plague stones," 
that is, cubical blocks with hollowed tops to fill with 
water for change of money, to be seen at some of the 
outlets of the borough; notably one near Congleton 
Edge. Within the last half century a dwarf stone cross 
stood near Dairy Brook, in Astbury, to mark the spot 
where the temporary market was held during the plague 
period. On occasion of the "intake" of the roadside 
waste, this cross was removed to a neighbouring gentle- 
man's garden about forty years ago. 

During the two years the scourge lasted, the rulers of 
the town seem to have exerted every effort for the good 
of the inhabitants, helping from the public funds as far as 
lay in their power. A note shows how the Corporation 
paid "ffor too loads of coales to boyle clothes in 
Croslidge to prevent Danger of future Infecon," and 
purchased "pitch and frankincense to purge infected 
houses." How the poor starving inhabitants, driven 
desperate by hunger and suffering, clamoured for bread 
is shown in the accounts, where the mayor enters in his 
own name sums of money "disbursed amongst the 
unthankfull poore," and again, "more by mysealfe at odd 
times amongst the clamorouse poore." In another note 
is the following: "Rec d ffro Wm. Lord Brereton 6o tie 
loaves of breade to distribute amongst the poore." 
Notwithstanding the town's distress, it was compelled to 
provide for a small band of soldiers. A larger comple- 
ment was threatened but not sent, because of the great 
poverty and destitution of the town. 

Further extracts from the town accounts show how 
the plague was dealt with : 

1641 Dec 17. to Randle Poynton ffor 

watching the billeted soldiers - 00.00.8 


Dec 19. to Jno Keene ffor money hee had 
Disbur st for Inkle, cording and oth r 
necessaris att the buriall of Alice 
Laplove and oth rs - 00.02.2 

Dec 22. ffor Coales to the Cabins 5 d , to 
little Bess for 5 days attendance to the 
people confined in houses and Cabins 
1/6 - - oo.oi.n 

Dec 22. to Wm. Hollenshed ffor reliefe 

ffor those of Moodie Street - 00.03.5 

Dec 24 to Roger Slater ffor too dayes 

allowance in Crosslidge - 00.04.2 

1641, Dec 24. pd. ffor one lood of coales 

to the watchmen in Moodie street - 00.00.9 

Dec 27. to ffrank Stubbs, the burier, ffor 

one weekes paie - 00.07.0 

Dec 28. to little Bess for a boll of Lickorise 

and wyne vinegar - oo.oi.o 

Dec 28. to John Leake to buy shott and 
pouth r to Kill doggs for fear of Infeccon 
spreading by ym - 00.00.10 

Dec 28. to Laploves little girle in her 

weakness - - 00.00.2 

Dec 29. more for the allowance of those 

Shutt upp in moodie streete 3 days - 00.10.3 

1642 July 23. Jn Ameson for Killing W m 
Newtons Catt at the death of his sonn 
feareing the infeccon - - 00.00.4 

It may be mentioned in passing that Laplove and all 
his family, with the exception of one little girl, appear 
to have died.* 

* By the Astbury register five Laploves appear to have been buried in 
two days. 


A story is told of a stricken burgess, who, feeling his 
dissolution approach, besought the neighbours for a cord 
which he could affix to his body, so that when dead it 
might be dragged out and buried. This was done, and 
eventually the dead cart, with its ghastly attendants on 
their nocturnal rounds, halted at the infected house. 
Finding all quiet, and concluding the man was dead, 
they attempted to drag the body from its loathsome 
habitation. Their efforts, however, were vain; pull as 
they might the rope refused to yield. Curious to learn 
the cause of this obstruction they entered the place, 
where, by the dim light of their torches, they found that 
the dying man, either by ghastly intention or unconscious 
chance, had attached the rope to the proverbial brank- 
hook in the fireplace, the body lying by itself in another 
part of the room (Head's Congleton, pp. 71-75). 

"The eye," the late Mr. J. E. Bailey says, "dwells 
with most tenderness upon numerous payments made to 
an active woman of diminutive stature, or it may be a 
young girl, named l Little Bess,' who remained faithful to 
her duty of nursing the plague-stricken when left to die. 
The money was given to Little Bess for wages and 
for purchasing necessaries for the sick or the dead. 
' Paid Little Bess, for keeping Mary Houlden's boy, 
6s. 8d.' 'Paid to Little Bess her quarters wages, 6s. 8d.' 
' Bestowed upon Little Bess her mother in the time of 
her sickness, 6d.' 'Bestowed to buy Little Bess's 
mother a winding-sheet, 2s. 6d.' 'Paid to Little Bess 
for three days' serving of the infected, is.' 'To Little 
Bess for one week's pay for attendance to the cabins, 
2s. 4d.' The cabins were the places to which the 
infected were removed. There are other payments to 
her at various times for balls of liquorice, wine vinegar, 
candles, pitch, frankincense, &c. Evidence is afforded that 


her ministrations were subsequently extended to wounded 
soldiers. It is interesting to meet in one entry with her 
name, which was Elizabeth Smith, otherwise ' Lancashire 
Bess" 1 (Papers of the Literary Club, vol. vi., p. 227). 

1645. Pestilence again visited Manchester in 1645, and 
by an ordinance of Parliament dated December gth, 1645, it 
appears that it had raged with such violence that for many 
months none had been permitted to come in or go out 
of the town. Its effects had been so dreadful that the 
ordinance says, "Most of the inhabitants living upon 
trade, are not only ruined in their estates, but many 
families are like to perish for want, who cannot suffi- 
ciently be relieved by that miserably wasted country." 
In relief of their distressed situation a collection, by 
order of Parliament, was made for the poor of Man- 
chester in all the churches and chapels of London and 
Westminster, the receipts of which were directed to be 
transmitted to Mr. John Hartley, of Manchester. The fol- 
lowing tabular statement of monthly and sometimes daily 
funerals, extracted from the registers of the Collegiate 
Church, will show the ravages of this epidemic: 

1644. October 

1645. March - 
July - - 
Angust - 


- 21 1645. October - - 112 

- 38 November - 49 

- 28 December - 23 

- 18 January - - n 

- 22 February - - 28 

- 20 1646. March - 14 

- 24 April - - 12 

- 61 May - - - 5 

- 135 J une - - - 10 

- 172 July - - - 8 

- 310 August - - - 12 

- 266 September - 6 


The number of funerals on particular days shows how 
deadly were the results: 

1645, August gth - - ig funerals. 

22nd - - 20 

28th - - 18 

,, September 2nd - 28 

There is a memorandum made in August: "There was 
no more Christenings in this month [there had been 
only one] by reason of the extremitie of the sicknesse." 
The remark is made in September that: "The same 
reason is to bee given in respect to this month." In 
October we are told: "The extremitie of the sicknesse 
was the cause why baptisme was altogeather deferred 
this whole moneth." November nth, 1645: "Alice, 
daughter to James Bradshaw, of Manchester, bap. att 
Chorlton in the sicknes tyme." In the marriage register 
for September is this remark: "There was not anie at 
all by reasonn of the sicknesse was soe greate." 

The Rev. Adam Martindale, in his Autobiography, has 
this anecdote of his mother-in-law: "A publick fast-day 
was held at Blackley-Chappell on the behalfe of poore 
Manchester; the place of reception being very strait for 
so great a congregation, this good woman and another, 
who was also a fashionable person, had but one seate 
betweene them, so they sometimes stood and sometimes 
sate in the same seate by turns, and at night the other 
woman died of the plague; which I have heard my 
mother-in-law say never put her into any fright, but 
being satisfied she was in her way of duty she confidently 
cast herself on God's protection, and was accordingly 
preserved" (p. 63). 

The following entries in the Constables' Accounts 
illustrate this epidemic: 


Nov 22. Rec d fro ye Countie in ye tyme of 
the visitation for w ch wee haue giuen 
an accompte to y e Justices - 918.00.00 

July ii 1645. pd souldiers for goinge to 

Collihurst to reforme disorders there - 00.02.00 

Mr. Earwaker thinks that there must have been some 
disturbances at the plague cabins, which he supposes 
were then in use. 

Sept 26. p d to Doctor Smith for his charges 

to London and a free guift - 04.00.00 

p d Doctor Smith for pte of his wages for 

his seruice in y e tyme of visitacon - 39.00.00 

Dec 16. p d Tho Minshull for apothecarie 

stuffe for y e townes seruice - 06.02.06 

Feb 14 1645-6. p d Roger Hadocke for 
gatheringe vp ye Counties money for 
our infected poore - - 05.01.00 

p d that was charged vpon the towne in y e 

visitacon - - 32.09.03 

Amongst those who suffered most from this visitation 
was the family of John Radcliffe of the Pool, a moated 
hall, the site of which is indicated by the name of Pool 
Fold. Two of his children, William and Mary, were 
buried on the I3th June, 1645, and of the five children 
he names in his will all but the youngest, Sarah, were 
buried within the next fortnight. His will is dated 
I9th June, and is written entirely in the testator's own 
hand, even the witnesses to this document not daring to 
come nearer to the infected house than "the west side 
of the poole." From this position " they saw and heard " 
the plague-stricken man " signe scale and publi? h the 
same" in their presence, but separated from them by 


the width of the moat or pool. John Radcliffe was 
buried at the Collegiate Church on 28th June, his only 
surviving son and heir on 3oth June; his younger 
daughter, Margaret, on 27th June; his eldest daughter, 
Anne, on ist July. His youngest daughter, Sarah, 
became her father's sole heiress, and carried his estates 
into the family of Alexander of Manchester. She was at 
the time of the plague only three years of age, and was 
the only survivor of a family of eleven children born 
between 1627 and 1642. 

1646. On the sides of the hills, near the Macclesfield 
crosses, are several gravestones of people who died of 
plague. Some stones are in the neighbourhood of the 
Bow Stone Gate, and others higher on the hill. Dr. 
Ormerod copied the two following inscriptions from 
stones on the side of the hill below the Bow Stone: 

John Hampson and his wife 
and three children left this life 

Think it not strange our bones ly here, 
Thine may ly thou knowest not where. 

1647. Chester, which was held for the king, after a 
siege of twenty weeks, in the latter part of which there 
was famine in the city, surrendered to the Parliamentary 
army 3rd February, 1646, and in the following year was 
visited by the plague. Between June 22nd, 1647, and 
April 2Oth, 1648, two thousand and ninety-nine are 
stated to have died. Trade was at a standstill, and 
cabins for the plague-stricken were erected outside the 
city (Creighton, p. 564; Historical MSS. Commission, 

iv. 339)- 

In 1647 the Liverpool people were alarmed, and under 
date of I2th June, 1647, ^ was "ordered that strict wach 


shal be kept by the townesmen because of the rumour of 
sicknes to be begune in Warrington." 

So at Manchester the Constables' Accounts show that 
precautions were taken to prevent ingress to the town of 
those who were thought still to be infected. Watch and 
ward was kept for this purpose : 

Feb 25 1646-7. Rec d of Mr. Smith Phissi- 
tion for bottles and stuffe Deliu red him 
w ch was left after ye sicknesse - - oi.oo.o 
July 31. pd. Tho: Bradshawe for bringing 
George Beuinton backe to Midlewich 
who came before hee was thought free 
from danger - 0.03.0 

Aug 20. pd. for waches and wards scince 

Michlmas for feare of Infection - 00.14.6 
pd. James Worthington and Tho Walworke, 
Raph Worsley and Richard Halle for 
warde for feare of infection - 00.02.0 

pd. Roger Haydocke for monie oweinge him 
scince y e sicknesse tyme for Collecting 
Monies for Manch r - - 01.04.6 

pd. John Rollinson for his charges to 
Chester w th Mr. Hen. Neild to bringe y e 
Monies colected for theire reliefe* - 00.06.6 
1647 Aug 20. p d 2 men for wachinge James 
Worthington att Townse end when hee 
came from Chester - - oo.oi.o 

pd. Robt Hill 20 s w ch hee lent y e Towne 
Deliu rd James Johnson begininge of y e 
sickenesse - - oi.oo.o 

p d James Lightbowne lent Towne at same 

tyme - - oi.oo.o 

"The Chester people were suffering from the plague. 


"The plague began in Wistaston, beinge a little pishe 
of one townseship, not twoe myles from Namptwiche, a 
little after midsom r 1647, an d conty'ued about nyne 
weekes ; in w ch space theire dyed xxvj p'sons. The same 
began in the howse of widowe Scott, a bleacher of 
clothes." This is quoted from the Malbon MS., by Mr. 
Hall, in his Nantwich, 188. 

1648. A plague and pestilence lent their aid in aggra- 
vation of the horrors of civil war in Liverpool. "The 
Portmoot court which should have been held after 
Christmas 1647, was deferred and put off by reason of 
the sickness and infection happening in certain houses 
in the Chapel Street, which, through the blessing of 
God great care being taken and much cost bestowed 
in building of cabins and removing the said families 
forth of the town into the said cabins it ceased in 
two months' time, with the death of about eight or nine 
persons of mean quality" (Picton's Memorials, vol. i., 
p. 104). 

Under date of February I4th, 1648, "It is this day 
ordered by Mr. Maior, the Aldermen and Comon 
Councell assembled, that the p'sons shutt up in their 
howses within this towne, upon the suspition of the 
sicknes and infeccon, may tomorrow be sett at lib'tie, 
and the gards taken offe vpon condicon they first shew 
themselves unto the officers appoynted for p'vyding 
for the poore, that they are all in health. W ch was 
donne accordingly, praised be God for his m'cie in 
o r speedie delivrance" (Picton, p. 193). 

The following year a return was apprehended. 

1649, February gth: "Ordered that in regard the 
towne is a garrison, and y e sicknes dangerously dis- 


persed; the abundance of poore, with the assistance of 
the Governor and soldiers shalbe kept out" (Picton). 

1650. In the parish register of Cockerham, near Lan- 
caster, is an entry, dated July, 1650: "The names of 
those that dyed of the infection in Cockerham: 21 dyed 
in July, of whom n were of the family of Braid: 34 in 
August, among whom was the reverend Thomas Smith, 
Vicar; 5 in September, and 4 in October, the last of 
whom died on the 8th, and here the Plague ceased" 
(History of Lancaster, ii. 509). 

It is stated in some works that another visitation of 
the plague passed over Liverpool in 1650, by which two 
hundred of the inhabitants were carried off, who were 
buried in Sick Man's Lane, now Addison Street. Sir 
James Picton was unable to find any contemporary 
authority confirmative of the statement (Picton, i. 104). 

Apprehensions of danger are shown in these orders: 
1650, April 2nd. "Whereas it is certainly reported, that 
the sicknes in Dubline, w ch by reason of the intercourse 
from thence may prove dangerous to this towne; it is 
therefore ord'red, that all owners and passengers comeing 
from thence shalbe restrained and debarred from comeing 
into this towne unless they cann make oath that they 
have not beene in anie infected place, nor brought over 
anie infected goods or passing rs from thence, and be 
allowed of by Mr. Maior; and a Warrant to be drawn up 
for y e Guard to examine all passing rs comeing from thence, 
until they be sworne and examined, wch was donne ac- 
cordingly." Again, on the i6th June, 1650, "It is alsoe 
agreed that the p'sons restrained are to be admitted to 
come into the towne, and if hereafter anie shal p'sume to 
goe to Dubline or anie other place infected, they shalbe 
restrained from comeing on shore ." 


1651, October 8th. The infection having returned, "It 
is ordred, that the Ballives shalbe freed from the 
collecting of the fynes because of the p'sent condicon 
of the towne in regard of the infeccon." October 25th. 
"At an Assembly etc, it was p'pounded concerning 
the setting at lib'tie of Mrs. Chambers and Balive 
Sturzaker, who have been seaven weeks confyned 
for suspition of the sicknes. It is ordred that they 
may have lib'tie to walk to the water syde, but are 
to sequester themselves from companie, and at the 
seacond or third dayes of January to bee free and at 
lib'tie, if nothing hapen but wel in y e meane tyme; also 
that Ball. Sturzaker may have lib'tie in the night tyme to 
come up to his shop, and to use what meanes hee pleases 
for clensing it. And John Lunte to continue in his 
howse for a forthnight." 

An epidemic broke out in 1651 on the seaside of 
Cheshire, Lancashire, and North Wales. Chester was 
comparatively free, but the neighbouring towns and 
villages were less fortunate, and eighty and one hundred 
were sick at a time in small villages, as at Stanney, 
Dunham-on-the-Hill, Norton, &c. (Creighton, p. 567, 

1652. At Liverpool, January I4th, it was "Ord d That 
the Schoolm r shall have his whole q rs wages notwith- 
standyng his discontinuance of teaching by reason of the 

"Ord d That Mr. William Williamson shall goe to 
Wigan, concerning the ley to be collected for y e poore 
and Infected, and to solizit the Justices of Peace for 
y e furtherance of the payment thereof" (Picton). 

1652. On July 8th Thomas Wharton writes from Kirk- 
dale to Edward Moore as to the heavy mortality at 


Bootle: "There was a boy at widow Robinson's died 
upon Saturday in Whitson week, and upon the Wed- 
nesday before he was sawying at the steward Worsley's 
house with his wrights. The boy and the steward's man 
slept together in Worsley's barn ; towards night the boy 
was not well, and could work no longer. All this John 
Wiggan of Kirkdale did see. Next John Birch died, and 
four of his children all are dead but his wife. At John 
Robinson's one child and his wife died last week, and 
upon Wednesday last two children more died; and it 
was thought by the constable of Bootle that he would be 
dead before this day at night. Upon Wednesday at 
night last, at James Pye's, there died two, his son and 
daughter; and a servant of Thomas Doubie's is dead 
and it is this day broken forth in Bridge's as we hear." 

In the Lancashire Royalist Composition Papers (first 
series, vol. Ixxx., No. 2,526, fols. 359, &c.), the petition 
of John Ackers, of Whiston, mentions that his great- 
uncle, William Ackers, died September, 1652; that 
Peter Ackers, son and heir-apparent of the said William, 
to whom the estate immediately descended, died about 
October, 1652, leaving no issue, his heir-at-law being 
petitioner's father, William Ackers. It also showed that 
petitioner's father also died in or about October, 1652 
"(all of them dying of the sore visitation of the plague)" 
(Ed. by Stanning, Rec. Soc., xxiv., p. 9). A writer in 
Notes and Queries (July I4th, 1894, p. 40) asks if this was 
the true plague, or some kind of malignant fever? "There 
seems to be," it says, "no certain authority for stating 
that the true plague ravaged this country between 1650 
and 1665." 

1653. The Liverpool Corporation records show that 
on June gth, 1653, it was "ordered that Capt. Thomas 


Croft shall have 3 H paid him by y e Balives forth of 
y e towne's stock, in lew and consideracon of his howse 
and lands w ch was spoyled by y e infected p'sons being put 
there in y e time of God's vizitacon of y e sicknes in this 
towne" (Picton, p. 195). 

1654. On May loth, i6th, and i8th, 1654, William 
Gaskin, Thomas Gaskin, Ellen Gaskin, Thomas Gaskin, 
jun., and Anne Gaskin, of Tarvin, died of the plague. 
There are no further notices of the spreading of the 

Mrs. Venables writes in her diary under this year: 
"Then was the Plague broken out in Chester and I was 
removed with my family to my dear Cousin Egertons" 
(Chetham Society, vol. Ixxxiii., p. 27). 

1661. There appears to have been an apprehension of 
a visit of the plague in 1661. The Rev. Henry Newcome 
writes in his "Diary," under date 4th November, 1661 : 
"Wee had some discourse about the plague. Judith 
Dodson buried her husband and 5 children of it and yet 
escaped hers: Shall I ever forget how y e L d delivered 
my family y e last yeare. Caleb told a dolefull story how 
3 in a bedd said, give us a little drinke or i d worth of 
drinke will serve us all while we live." And he refers 
later to the "sad storys they told us about y e plague 
w n it was- in this towne." 

1665. The London Gazette, on nth December, 1665, 
reports: "Wigan in Lancashire, Dec. 6. This town was 
startled at the Death of a Woman, who was found early 
in the morning before the dore of a poor Cottage in the 
Highway, within the limits of the Corporation. The 
Mayor of this Town was very industrious to find the 
cause of it, and upon the examination of three persons, 


that came with her into the town from Ireland, and 
many notorious circumstances, it appears that she war, 
clear from any infection, and that being with child, to 
avoid the shame among her friends, who are of good 
fashion, and live not many miles from this place, she 
destroyed herself by poison" (cited in Palatine Note-Book, 
iii. 72). Although the above proved not to be a case of 
fatality by the plague, yet the great alarm of the towns- 
folk of Wigan on hearing of the poor woman's sudden 
death, and the close inquiry of the mayor into the death, 
suggest, in Mr. Abram's opinion, that the plague must 
have been present in these parts of England in the latter 
part of that year (1665). 

At Manchester there appears to have been some 
apprehension for at the court leet, 3rd October, 1665, 
"the Jurie doth order that all former good Orders made 
for the benefite of the towne shall bee putt in Execution 
and that the Steward and Burrowreeve and Constables 
are desired to see itt effected Alsoe that Order for the 
Infection of the Plauge of Pestilence." 

The Liverpool records again afford information of the 
presence of pestilence in Cheshire in 1665. On the 2nd 
November, a public meeting of the burgesses was con- 
vened by the mayor (Mr. Michael Tarleton), when it was 
resolved: "That upon consideration and apprehension 
of the spreading contagion of the plague in divers 
neighbouring towns in Cheshire and other parts, and 
of the great concourse of people usually from these 
parts all the time of the fairs kept in this town, it 
is generally voted, agreed, thought fit, and so ordered 
that the keeping of the fair here on St. Martin's Day 
next (November n), the eve, and other usual days 
after here accustomably kept, shall on this present 
exigent of danger for this year be absolutely forborne and 


forbidden by open publication and notice thereof in the 
open market the next market day." Sir James Picton 
observes that "as we have no record of any attack of 
the plague, it is to be presumed that these precautionary 
measures proved effectual." 

A gravestone in the middle of a large field on the left- 
hand side of the road leading from Alderley Edge to 
Mobberley, and just before reaching the row of trees 
on Lindow Common, bears the letters E. S., and the 
date 1665. It is the only memento of the plague 
in Wilmslow parish. The following entry in the parish 
register explains it: "1665, July. The I7th day was 
buried E Stonaw, at her owne house, shee 

beinge suspected to dye of the plague, she but comeing 
home the day before." In a note in a much later hand 
is added: "In a field near Smallwood House, now 
belonging to the Vicar of Knutsford. 1788." 

Here it may be well to reproduce from Mr. Earwakers 
East Cheshire the particulars of the aid given by the 
people of Stockport to London, when the capital was 
afflicted by the pestilence of 1665 : 

" Collections made for relief of sufferers by the London 
plague, in Stockport: 

"Collected at ffast 2 nd Aug: 1665 2 11 7 s o d [2.7.0] in 
tyme of the plague in London. 

"Collected 6 th Sept. at ffast i" 7 s 5 d in tyme of the 
plague in London. 

"Collected at the ffast 4 th Oct in the tyme of the plague 
in London i n II s i d 

"Collected io th Jan. for the releefe of the poore visitted 
people in London in the tyme of the plague the surne of 
seven shillings and eleaven pence. 

"Collected at the ffast for the plague at London 7 th 
February io s 3 d 


"Collected March 7 th 1665 [1665-6] being ffast day for 
the plague at London io s 

"From this it would appear," observes Mr. Earwaker, 
"that between August, 1665, and March, 1666, no less 
than six separate days were set apart for prayer and 
fastings on account of the plague in London. The 
sufferings that Stockport had sustained no doubt in- 
fluenced its inhabitants" (vol. i., p. 409). 

The causes of the extinction of the plague in this 
country are to be sought in the general improvement in 
the social and sanitary condition of the people. There 
can be no doubt that the pestilence found powerful allies 
within the communities it decimated. There is still 
much to be done, but enormous progress has been made 
in the direction of making town life cleaner and healthier 
than it was in the "good old times." 



picturesque title page of that very interesting 
work, Our Country Churches and Chapels, by A. 
Hewitson, contains a view of the church at Stydd, 
described as the " oldest Lancashire church, founded in 
the twelfth century." So far as depends on him, Mr. 
Hewitson thus perpetuates what, with all respect to him, 
I cannot but look upon as a serious error in chronology. 
At the time when the work appeared I accepted the 
statement as true, and it has since been reproduced in 
works of greater pretentions. Enlarged knowledge and 
a closer acquaintance with old Lancashire churches have 
satisfied me that there is at least one older church in 
Lancashire, and that Stydd, venerable and quaint as it 
is, must acknowledge that it is a mere youngster as 
compared with the church at Overton, near Lancaster. 
Let us take Mr. Hewitson's own dates in his kindly 
account of his visit to Stydd. 

He says (page 113): "It is supposed to have been 
erected during the reign of Stephen, between 1135 and 
1154." ... An old deed, bearing no date, says that 


"Allan de Singleton, son of Richard, confirms to God 
and St. Saviour de sub Langrigh for the hospital there 
four acres of land in Dilewrhe." The highest antiquity 
thus claimed for this primitive specimen of church 
architecture is the twelfth century. All the decorative 
features are of the Norman style, the arches rounded, 
and adorned with the zigzag borders. 

Now let us turn to the description of Overton given 
in Baines as edited by Mr. Harland. "It is a plain 
rectangular building, without buttresses, the walls of the 
old part being four feet or upwards in thickness. The 
stones are small, and, from the nature of the grit, appear 
to have been picked off the surface of the rock in the 
vicinity of the chapel before the art of working quarries 
was known, and to have been put in promiscuously 
without regard in the walling department to the thick- 
ness or parallelism of the course. From the solidity and 
compactness of the walls the mortar must have been in a 
liquid state, which, by slow drying and the effect of time, 
has now become harder than the rock itself. All these 
circumstances relative to the construction of the walls 
are so many corroborating proofs of great antiquity. 
The doorway is formed in a deep recession, and on 
account of the great thickness of the walls forms a 
small portal. It consists of three semi-circular arches 
springing from so many connecting columns. Both the 
columns and the circular parts have been highly orna- 
mental. The chevron or zigzag is very conspicuous, and 
the vestiges of other figures may be seen. A label 
moulding also borders the arch. . . . From the 
exact conformity of the chapel in every respect to the 
Saxon style, it is not improbable that it is an erection 
anterior to the Norman Conquest" (Baines, ii., p. 580). 

This description of the building points to a date even 


earlier than that mentioned by Baines, viz., some time 
after the settlement of the Angles in north Lancashire. 
The great thickness of the walls and the absence of 
courses in the stonework suggest a British rather than a 
Saxon origin of the building. The Normans in the 
twelfth century found it a deserted ruin, but with more 
than customary consideration for existing buildings a 
wealthy person, probably a local baron, struck by its 
venerable and time-w r orn aspect, resolved on restoring it. 
He used the architecture of the time, and the Norman 
arch and the zigzag were freely used in adorning the rude 
and massive walls. 

The chapel had been so long abandoned that the 
dedication of it was unknown to the barons and 
ecclesiastics of the time. They did not, however, 
presume to invent a new dedication, and Baines 
significantly says, "the patron saint is unknown." The 
folklore of the country has, however, retained the 
original dedication, and the farmers and peasants of the 
district will tell you that in olden times it was dedicated 
to St. Patrick. It was from a son of the soil that I 
learnt this old tradition. When he was a child on the 
southern bank of the Lune the old church of St. Patrick 
at Overton was often pointed out to him, and he was 
told that it had once been dedicated to that great saint. 
The very silence of Baines is eloquent in its testimony to 
the truth of what he heard. 

St. Patrick's Chapel at Heysham is only a ruin, but 
St. Patrick's Church at Overton is still used for divine 
service. They both recall the far off time when the 
memory of St. Patrick's visit to Morecambe in 394 was 
fresh in the minds of men. 

The church at Overton takes us back to the sixth 
or seventh century. When the Normans conquered 


England it had long been a ruin. In the twelfth 
century it was restored with lavish ornament about the 
time when the Stydd Church came first into being. 
Had Mr. Hewitson at the time been as familiar with the 
old-world places about Heysham as he undoubtedly was 
with those in the neighbourhood of Preston, he would 
faithfully have set forth the claims of St. Patrick's 
Church at Overton to be the " Oldest Church in 


Friday, January i2th, 1894. 

r I ^HE monthly meeting was held in Chetham Library, 
Mr. J. Holme Nicholson, M.A., presiding. 

Dr. Renaud, F.S.A., exhibited a Jacobean mortar 
from a house in Mottram-in-Longdendale. It is inscribed 
in letters round the rim, "Fear God and honour the 
King," with date "1607," and the name of the proprietor, 
"H. Rile." "Ricard Hapton" is incised on the second 
line; on the third line, in inverted letters, "Bertus L." 
is carved, and " H. T." on one of the angles in letters the 
reverse of the former. On line four " Robertus Lee" and 
"Isbele Ford." Dr. Renaud has presented this mortar 
to the British Museum. 

Mr. T. Oxley exhibited and described an ancient 
bronze ewer, and Mr. George C. Yates a mediaeval bottle 
found at Lincoln and an iron stylus from North India. 

Mr. Nathan Heywood placed on the table a statuette 
of the god Vishnu, in brown amethyst, and also a hand- 
somely carved box made from Shakspere's celebrated 
mulberry tree and a photo of the cast of the poet's face. 

Mr. Robert Langton handed round a drawing for 
examination, and said: It represents a piece of glass, 


which was first brought into notice by Mr. F. W. 
Fairholt, F.S.A., some fifty years since. The late Mr. 
James O. Halliwell Phillipps, F.R.S., with whom I have 
had correspondence on this and other Shaksperean 
matters, wrote some six or seven years since: "The late 
Mr. Fairholt, one of the best judges in such matters that 
ever lived, was of a decided opinion that the glass is a 
genuine work of art of the Shaksperean period. If so 
it may be taken for granted that it is an authentic 
Stratford relic, for it is incredible that anyone should 
have pounced elsewhere upon a glass with the three 
desirable initials, brought it from a distance into the 
town, and then invented a New Place story, without a 
commercial or any other sort of intelligible object. But 
how came the piece of glass into the possession of the 
tenant of the birthplace? Mr. Fairholt's version of 
it was this. A relative of the late Mrs. Court, whose 
ancestor had been employed to pull down New Place, 
had saved this square of glass, but attached little value to 
it. She told her story simply, made no comments, and 
urged no belief." Mr. Halliwell Phillipps, then, believed 
this to be a genuine relic, and the late Mr. C. Roach 
Smith held a similar opinion, and thought it the most 
valuable memento of the great poet next to his signatures 
attached to his will. Where this interesting relic is now 
I cannot say, but it was in Mr. Halliwell Phillipps' 
collection of Shakspere rarities at his death. New Place 
(of one of whose mullioned windows the glass is 
supposed to have formed a part) was purchased by 
Shakspere early in 1597 for 60 (equivalent perhaps to 
more than 300 present value) of William Underhill. 
The house was built in the reign of Henry VII. , 
and destroyed in 1759, by the Rev. Francis Gastrell, 
vicar of Frodsham, Cheshire, who had previously (1756) 


cut down the famous mulberry tree for firewood. It is 
pleasant to add on the authority of Dyce that " Gastrell, 
having quarrelled with the magistrates about parochial 
assessments, quitted Stratford amidst the rage and 
execrations of the inhabitants." The device I exhibit 
was engraved (1847) in Fairholt's Home of Shakspere, and 
is copied direct, full size, from Mr. Fairholt's original draw- 
ing. The initials reticulated in a true lover's knot stand 
thus, W. A. S., for William and Ann Shakspere, and the 
date 1615 was the year before the poet's death. If then 
we accept the only evidence that is ever likely to be 
offered, and believe with the great authorities I have 
quoted that this is a genuine relic of the great Shakspere 
in his retirement, and that this frail memorial actually 
demonstrates the loving terms on which he was with his 
wife when he was so near his end, should we not also 
receive it as a most touching answer to the calumnies 
that have lately been current as to his supposed loose 
life with the dark lady of the Sonnets, and of that other 
silly and exploded scandal, his testamentary neglect of 
his wife ? 

Mr. George Esdaile read a short communication on the 
Round Table of the semi-legendary King Arthur. 

A discussion took place on this paper, in which Dr. 
March and Messrs. Hughes, S. Andrew, and the Chair- 
man took part. 

Friday, January 26th, 1894. 

The eleventh annual meeting was held in Chetham 
Library, Mr. J. Holme Nicholson presiding. There was 
a large attendance. 

The Chairman read the annual report of the Council 
(see vol. xi., p. 189). 



The report and a statement of accounts (read by Mr. 
T. Letherbrow) were adopted on the motion of the 
Chairman, seconded by Mr. A. Taylor. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 

President : 

Vice-Presidents : 

W. E. A. AXON, F.R.S.L. 




Council . 






Lieut. -Colonel FISHWICK, F.S.A. 







Rev. E. F. LETTS, M.A. 




Honorary Secretary: G. C. YATES, F.S.A. 

Mr. Albert Nicholson called attention to the paragraph 
in the report with regard to the proposal to present a 
mace to the Manchester Corporation. At the con- 
versazione in December, at which corporate insignia 
were exhibited, it was stated that Manchester was almost 
alone among corporations, great or small, in having no 
mace, and, in fact, having no insignia of any kind with 
the exception of the mayoral chain. The opinion was 
then very generally expressed that this was a matter 
which ought immediately to be put right. The members 
of the Antiquarian Society, it seemed to him, were 
the right persons to take the initiative, and he had 
accordingly brought the matter before the Council of the 
Society. A committee had been appointed, who were 


now appealing for subscriptions, which would not be 
limited to members of the Society. 

The following were elected members of the Society: 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Norbury, Mr. A. R. Scott, and Mr. 
John Warburton. 

Friday, February 2nd, 1894. 

The monthly meeting was held on February 2nd in 
the Chetham Library, Mr. C. W. Sutton presiding. 

Mr. J. Pearson exhibited a collection of military and 
other medals, and read a short communication thereon. 

Mr. C. T. Tallent-Bateman exhibited a number of 
interesting documents. These included a schedule of 
title deeds of the time of Charles I., relating to lands 
at Castleton, held originally by the Byron family as 
"farmers" of the Royal manor of Rochdale, and referring 
to numerous Lancashire families; a draft, settled by a 
famous Chancery counsel practising in the Duchy of 
Lancaster (Mr. Edward Chetham) in the time of Charles 
II., of a Chancery petition of the family of Lightboune 
concerning property at Blackley; a draft deed of the time 
of James II. referring to the same family and property, 
and an autograph of Thomas Case, once rector of Trinity 
Church, Salford, a member of the Assembly of Divines, 
who is mentioned in Hudibras. 

Mr. S. Jackson exhibited a drawing of a perforated 
stone hammer, eleven inches long, found at Garstang. 

Mr. T. Cann Hughes, M.A., exhibited a hymn book, 
compiled by John Hampson, printed at Chester, 1767. 
John Hampson was a native of Chowbent. 

Mr. G. C. Yates, the Hon. Secretary, read a paper 
written by Mr. Thomas Roose, Bolton Abbey, on some 
implements and weapons from the Great Edge Settlement 


on Extwistle Moor, Lancashire. Mr. Roose said that 
almost all our moorlands had from time to time yielded 
evidence of their having been occupied by early man, at 
a time when they were woods and forests that had long 
since disappeared. Anyone who had searched these 
moorlands for implements of flint and stone could not 
fail to have noticed in many instances the abundance of 
those relics, but more especially the way in which they 
were distributed. Scattered here and there, now a few 
chips, next an arrow or spear head, or perhaps a knife, 
one is often puzzled to account for them being so widely 
scattered, for wherever the peat has been eroded we are 
sure to find them. The chippings themselves suggest 
much that is interesting ; that they are the refuse from 
the manufacture of implements is indisputable. But 
they lead us on to other problems less easily solved, for 
where the implements were manufactured would un- 
doubtedly be located the rude huts of these primitive 
men. Judging from the abundance and general distri- 
bution of the chippings, the inhabitants must either have 
been very numerous, or their stay must have extended 
over a vast period of time. Mr. Roose named the site on 
which he discovered the implements in question "The 
Great Edge Settlement," doing so on the direct evidence 
furnished by the discovery. Referring to the mounted 
specimens exhibited, it would be noted that there was 
a carefully worked arrow head of the leaf type, and a 
fragment of another, barbed, but evidently broken in 
course of manufacture and cast aside, a small axe and 
another implement, seemingly well used, with two or 
more similar pieces in a handle and used as a weapon. 
Next would be noticed a large and well-formed knife, 
together with two scrapers, one of them worn smooth 
with handling, a two-edged implement, used probably 


for skinning, one end had a finger place worked in it; 
this finger hold would be quite unnecessary in an ordinary 
scraper, but, used in skinning an animal, it would give 
the operator greater power over his work. Then there 
was the needle or borer, used in making holes (through 
which to pass the sinews) in the skins with which this 
primitive race would be clothed. A small core and 
portion of a pebble, together with the chippings and 
flakes of flint, go to prove that not only were the weapons 
used in the near vicinity, but manufactured on the spot. 
The presence of some good flakes of chert was most 
interesting, as it pointed to a time when the supply of 
flint failed and the neolithic men were driven to the 
necessity of using implements of chert. The absence 
of a hearth or burnt stones might be accounted for by 
the action of the denuding agents, which must be at a 
maximum in so exposed a situation. From evidence he 
had collected he was of opinion that the isolated position 
of the " finds," coupled with the fact that no other flints 
or chert were found in the entire length of that ridge, 
though the greater part of the peat had been eroded, 
and that some pieces of flint had been influenced by 
fire, pointed to the place having been a settlement of 
neolithic man. 

Mr. Yates read a letter from Mr. Tattersall Wilkinson, 
of Swinden, near Burnley, referring to Mr. Roose's 

Mr. T. Cann Hughes, M.A., contributed the following 
paper on "The Misereres in Malpas and Gresford 
Churches:" On 26th December, 1892, I visited the fine 
old parish church of Malpas, in the sister county, and, 
after walking a mile up the hill through pretty scenery 
to the village, was welcomed at the rectory by the 
rector, the Hon. and Rev. William Trevor Kenyon, 


M.A., who has contributed a valuable paper to the third 
volume of the new series of the Transactions of the 
Chester Archaeological Society, on " Malpas Town, 
Parish, and Church," to which I am to some extent 
indebted in the remarks which follow. The rector first 
showed me his rectory, in which Bishop Reginald Heber, 
of Calcutta, was born, and whence he went to Wrexham, 
where he wrote his famous hymn, "From Greenland's icy 
mountains." He then conducted me to his beautiful 
church, and pointed out the many features of interest it 
contains. But I had taken the journey to Malpas for a 
special purpose (to inspect the carved misericords), and to 
this work we at length directed our attention. The stalls 
have originally been far more numerous; there remain, 
however, only three, which are arranged along the south 
wall of the chancel. They are of interest, but consider- 
ably worm-eaten. The first, which depicts a struggle 
between two soldiers armed, has been photographed 
by Mr. F. W. Farrimond, of Chester. The second 
example is a mermaid with a brush and comb. This 
subject was a favourite on misericords, and occurs at 
Chester and Worcester and also in Exeter Cathedral. 
The remaining example is a monster with a double body 
and one head; it is also found at Chester and several 
other places, and has been reproduced on the new north 
front of Westminster Abbey. On last bank holiday (26th 
December, 1893) I visited the fine Welsh border church 
of All Saints, at Gresford, and, by the courtesy of Arch- 
deacon Howell, F.S.A., examined at leisure the handsome 
series of misericords there, of which Chancellor Parkins 
had sent me a brief account incorporated in my paper 
on the Chester misericords, which is printed in the 
recently issued part of the Chester A rchczological Journal. 
I may describe shortly the elbows, which are almost 


identical throughout the series. They depict angels in 
long flowing robes (in two cases in armour) and baaring 
shields, on which have doubtless once been the blazon 
of many an old Welsh border family. Two are animals. 
The following dimensions may be of interest to the 
ecclesiologist : (i) Height of seat from floor when seat 
down, i foot 10 inches; (2) height of top of bracket 
when seat is turned up, 2 feet 5 inches; (3) distance 
between elbows, 2 feet 2 inches ; (4) length of seat, 
10 inches; (5) length of bracket, 7^ inches; (6) width 
of seat, 9 inches ; (7) depth of bracket, 5 inches ; 
(8) thickness of seat, i inch. The seats are fastened 
on metal hinges, and not with wooden pivots as 
in many instances, e.g., at Stowlangtoft, Suffolk. 
There are fourteen stalls in all, seven on each side of 
the chancel; three on each side are "returned," or 
face eastwards. 


(1) This stall is plain, and has the appearance of 
having been cut away, as also the two supporters. 

(2) The grotesque head in the central subject supports 
curious tracery which forms a pediment from which the 
bracket rises; the supporters here are gone. 

(3) An angel with a shield in its hands; supporters 

(4) The wolf attacks a figure with a staff or other 
weapon, but the head is broken off, and this misericord 
has been badly treated; no supporters remain. 

(5) This stall is fixed. I could feel no trace of any 
carving underneath. 

(6) A woman riding on an elephant or other beast of 
burden; damaged; the supporters are Tudor roses. 

(7) A winged lion rampant, with the head of an eagle, 


stands between a unicorn an'd another animal too much 
mutilated for identification ; the supporters are again 


(1) Two men carry a comrade slung over a pole; a 
third walks behind them. This misericord is indecently 
designed, by no means an unfrequent occurrence in 
this class of adornment ; the subject occurs in Bristol 
Cathedral. The supporters are pigs. 

(2) A lion and another animal (broken) hold a fox in 
their paws. The left-hand supporter is formed by inter- 
lacement of the end of the bracket; the right hand floral. 

(3) A demon wheeling three people into hell mouth, a 
frequent subject on stalls at Ludlow and elsewhere; the 
supporters animals holding drinking vessels. 

(4) This central subject is cut away ; the supporters 
are grotesque heads in semicircles. 

(5) Two angels holding a shield with floral supporters. 

(6) This is the most interesting subject in the series, 
the fox in a pulpit preaching to the geese. This occurs 
at Beverley Minster, Bristol Cathedral, Cartmel Priory, 
Nantwich Church, and other places; the supporters are 

(7) The main subject is here broken away ; the left- 
hand supporter is an angel kneeling with implements of 
the passion, and occurs at Chester; the right hand is a 
queen kneeling before a prayer-desk with uplifted hands, 
and recalls the memory of a stall at the fine church of 
Norton, near Bury St. Edmunds. 

A paper was read by Mr. W. Harrison, in the absence 
of Major French, the writer, on the so-called Martyr 
Stone of George Marsh, at Dean, near Bolton. A brief 


discussion took place upon the latter communication, in 
which Messrs. Woodburne and Letts took part. 

Mr. C. T. Tallent-Bateman afterwards gave some 
reminiscences of the late Miss Emily Holt. 

Friday, March 2nd, 1894. 

The monthly meeting was held in Chetham Library, 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., presiding. 

Mr. Yates showed three medals commemorating Her 
Majesty's visit to Manchester in 1851. On the reverse of 
one of the medals is a view of the Manchester Collegiate 
Church, Victoria Bridge, with a triumphal arch, under 
which her majesty and suite are passing, and Ben Lang's 
Music Hall. Another medal has an excellent view of 
Worsley Hall, with the royal barge sailing along the 
Canal. The third has the double heads of the Queen 
and Prince Albert, with legend, " In commemoration of 
the general assemblage of Sunday Schools from the 
boroughs of Manchester and Salford in Peel Park to 
welcome Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen and her 
royal consort, October 10, 1851. John Potter, Esq., 
Mayor of Manchester. Thomas Agnew, Esq., Mayor of 
Salford." Mr. Yates also exhibited a medal of John Dalton, 
"To commemorate the meeting of the British Associa- 
tion held in Manchester, and in honour of John Dalton, 
by the proprietors of Bradshaw's Journal. June, 1842;" 
and a medal with a view of the old Royal Infirmary, 
Manchester, dated 1796. 

Mr. George B. L. Woodburne exhibited a Waterloo 
medal; also a MS. copy of the statutes of the Order of 
the Garter, supposed to have belonged to Cardinal Allen. 

Mr. A. Nicholson, the engraving of a bronze urn found 
at Chester, and a portrait of Sir Piers Button, of Hatton, 


to whom Henry the Seventh confirmed the advocacy of 
the Chester Minstrels. 

Mr. Nathan Heywood exhibited a bronze medal struck 
in commemoration of the last visit of the British Archaeo- 
logical Association to Manchester. He also showed a 
Jewish shekel and half-shekel, and read an interesting 
paper on Bible Coins. 

Mr. Albert Nicholson and the Chairman reported on 
the proceedings of the committee appointed to make 
arrangements as to the mace and other insignia which it 
was proposed to present to the Corporation of Manchester. 

Mr. A. Taylor gave an interesting description of some 
curious markings on a rock surface at Kircudbright, and 
exhibited photographs of the same. Discussion took 
place, in which the Chairman and Dr. March took part. 

Mr. Robert Langton read the following short paper on 
the Old Bell at Bradshaw, near Bolton : Some twelve 
years since I went to Bradshaw with our member 
and friend, the late Mr. J. C. Scholes, of Bolton, and we 
together ascended the almost ruinous tower, which 
is all that is left of the older church of St. Maxentius, 
and made a careful examination of this curious pre- 
Reformation bell. We found it lying on the floor of 
an upper chamber of the tower, and I remember we 
had some little difficulty in getting there by means of a 
ladder. I cannot give you the exact weight of this bell, 
as we had no means of weighing it, but from the diameter 
at the mouth, twenty and a half inches, I estimate the 
weight to be about two hundredweight. We managed 
to lift it up on to its stock so as to hear the tone, and 
though I cannot tell you the note, I should pronounce 
the tone to be very fine indeed. I then made the rubbing 
which I now produce, which, allowing for the almost 
inevitable bell-founders' blunders, reads "Ave Maria 


Gracia Plena," and not "Ave Maria Graia Appela" as 
stated in Mr. Axon's Lancashire Gleanings, p. 238. To 
give you some idea of how very common this particular 
inscription must have been on old bells of the church, I 
may state that of the two thousand and thirty-four church 
bells of Lincolnshire described by North, three huudred 
and fifty-six are ancient, that is, bells cast before A.D. 1600. 
Of these, seventy-two are dedicated to or bear inscriptions 
relating to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and of these again 
ten bear the inscription, "Ave Maria Gracia Plena." We 
found there was a sort of tradition, that this bell was 
brought to Bradshaw Chapel at the dissolution of the 
monasteries from some religious house in the adjoining 
county of Yorkshire. About the truth of that I can learn 
nothing, and, although such traditions abound in all parts 
of England, I should say in this particular case it is 
probable enough. The date of the bell may be the earlv 
part of the fifteenth or late in the fourteenth century. I 
can only judge of that by the character of the letters, the 
general contour of the bell, and the shape of the canons 
or ears by which the bell has been suspended. The Rev. 
R. K. Judson, M.A., the vicar of Bradshaw (to whom I am 
indebted for some of these facts), tells me the bell is lying 
in just the same state of neglect as it was when I saw it, 
and that he had so far tried in vain to interest the vestry 
and parishioners sufficiently to induce them to bear the 
small expense of re-hanging and restoring to its proper 
use this interesting and little-appreciated piece of anti- 
quity. I am sorry that owing to the shortness of the 
days I could not accept the vicar's kind invitation to 
run over and sketch of photograph the bell. It might 
possibly be a job that some younger member who lives 
near the spot might undertake, with a view to printing it 
in our next volume. I also exhibit the original drawing 


made from a rubbing of the inscription on the now cele- 
brated bell at St. Chad's, Claughton, near Lancaster, an 
account of which, with illustrations, I communicated to 
the Palatine Note-Book for August, 1884. 

The principal paper of the evening was by the Rev. 
E. F. Letts, M.A., on " Warden Heyrick and his Brass 
in Manchester Cathedral." 

Dr. Colley March, F.S.A., read a paper, entitled " Fresh 
Evidence of the Antiquity of Dun ^Engus, Inishmore."* 

Friday, April 6th, 1894. 

The closing meeting of the winter session was held in 
the Chetham Library, Mr. W. E. A. Axon presiding. 

The following new members were elected: Messrs. 
James Watts, Herbert Sandford Claye, Samuel Warbur- 
ton, and Incledon Webber. 

Mr. E. W. Barton exhibited a beautifully worked flint 
arrow-head, found in his garden at Sale, about two feet 
from the surface, in a layer of coarse yellow sand, known 
locally as the " Fox Bench" or "Fox Bank." The 
garden is about half a mile south of the ancient bank of 
the river Mersey, and ninety years ago was part of Sale 
Moor and afterwards pasture land. It is about one 
hundred yards from the site of the grand stand, which 
collapsed at the review referred to by Mrs. Banks in The 
Manchester Man. 

Mr. J. P. Earwaker, F.S.A., exhibited and described 
the original contract for building Oldham Church, 1476, 
and other deeds and papers relating to Oldham, after 
which an interesting discussion took place, in which 

*Dr. March's paper, after being re-cast by him, was read before the 
Society of Antiquaries, and has been printed in their Proceedings (second 
series, vol. xv., p. 224). 


Messrs. S. Andrew, Giles Shaw, and John Dean, Colonel 
Fishwick, the Rev. E. F. Letts, and the Vicar of Oldham 
took part. 

Major French read a paper on the recently discovered 
stone circles on Chetham's Close, which he illustrated 
by diagrams. (See page 42.) In the discussion Mr. J. 
Holme Nicholson thought from the description given 
the remains might very possibly be those of British 
dwellings within an enclosure. Messrs. A. Nicholson, 
Beaumont, and Dr. Colley March also took part in the 

Mrs. Linnaeus Banks sent an interesting paper, em- 
bodying reminiscences of Sandbach seventy years ago, 
which was read by Mr. C. W. Sutton. 

Mr. G. C. Yates exhibited a flint round scraper, 
beautifully worked, from Bromehill, Norfolk; similar to 
the one figured in Sir John Evans's Ancient Stone 
Implements (p. 276, fig. 219); also a greenstone hatchet 
from New Zealand. 

Mr. Norman Sheldon exhibited some flint implements 
found at Kersal Moor. 

Mr. Richardson exhibited a Bank of England dollar 
(1804) and a Manchester seventeenth century penny 

Mr. William Harrison exhibited an original print of 
the Northampton Mercury, November ist, 1736, containing 
the conclusion of the trial of Captain Porteous at 

Mr. William E. A. Axon exhibited an early printed 
tract of twelve pages, undated, but believed to have 
been printed at Venice in 1480. It contained the Latin 
text of the letter of Prester John, in two articles, by 
^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini, who afterwards became 
Pope Pius II. 


Mr. Yates made the following communication on the 
ancient boat recently found in the ship canal excavations: 
The excavators employed by Mr. John Jackson, the con- 
tractor for the Manchester Ship Canal, while digging out 
the western approach to the new lock at Lower Walton, 
came across what seemed to be the trunk of a tree, but 
which on excavating about it further proved to be an 
ancient British boat or "dug-out." It is of oak, hollowed 
out by some sharp instrument, the marks of which are 
still apparent. It is twelve feet long, two feet four inches 
wide at the bow, two feet eight inches wide at the 
centre, and two feet eleven inches at the stern. The 
depth is twelve inches at the centre inside. Generally, 
the thickness of wood is about three inches, but with 
great art two "stiffeners" have been left in, dividing the 
bottom of the boat into three parts. The thickness of 
these "stiffeners" is about seven inches. There are two 
knot holes, where branches have projected from the 
trunk of the tree, but these were beautifully plugged with 
wood. In the stern is a seat, and behind the seat a 
slightly raised, flat, and well curved waling; both seat 
and waling being fitted together and fastened by the 
same plugs at each end. The fastenings are mostly oak 
plugs, but one rivet was found of metal. There are no 
rowlocks or rudder. She was lying bottom upwards, 
with stern lying N.N.E., on the Arpley Meadows, sixty 
feet from the present river course, and eighteen feet below 
the surface. Below her was a bed of fine sand, which 
lay five feet above the boulder clay. Above a layer of 
black silt. She is a very light and fleet looking skiff, and 
considering the material and method of her making is 
of beautiful proportions. 


Thursday, May yd, 1894. 

A party of members visited the old church at Didsbury, 
Mr. Fletcher Moss acting as guide. The inscription 
on the tower was explained to mean that Sir Edward 
Mosley and Ann Mosley, widow, were the founders of 
it. They were the son and daughter-in-law of Sir 
Nicholas Mosley, and the date was 1620. It was the 
opinion of some members of the Society that little, if any, 
of the original church existed, and that the round arches 
and pillars of the oldest part were not Norman, but 
had been rebuilt, probably when the galleries were 
erected. The great thickness of the old walls was 
remarked as curious, especially when it was said that 
one faculty had authorised the reduction of them by 
two feet. There is original round-headed work in the 
stone staircase. 

Mr. Moss said that the earliest known reference to 
Diddesburie Chapel was in a deed relating to the Barlow 
family. That deed is without date but of the thirteenth 
century. It mentions Alexander, Capellanus de 
Diddesburie. The next earliest is the dedication of the 
chapel-yard in 1352, after the fearful pestilence, called .the 
Black Death. The registers begin in 1561, and one of 
the earliest baptisms is that of Edward Barlowe, the Father 
Ambrose of the Benedictines, who accepted martyrdom 
at Lancaster, in 1641, after the Anglican divines had 
vainly endeavoured to concert him to the Thirty-nine 
Articles as he was being dragged on a hurdle to be tortured. 
For a century after the Reformation, the Barlows con- 
tinued to use the chapel, and to be Roman Catholics 
without change. In 1612 was buried Sir Nicholas 
Mosseley (as the name was then spelt), once Lord Mayor 
of London, who had come into prominence at the time of 
the Spanish Armada. In 1642 was buried Mr. Thomas 


Hebblethwaites, " this gentleman came against Man- 
chester, and was slaine at the seige there, and was buryed 
at Didisburie by Mr. Turner, the schoolemaster." This is 
the only entry relating to the siege of Manchester, though 
other persons concerned in it were buried at Didsbury, it 
being the nearest consecrated ground outside the town. 
It is also an important entry, as it shows that there was 
a schoolmaster two hundred and fifty years ago, a luxury 
that can scarcely be afforded by Didsbury at the present 
time. Another entry, of Richard Ward, gent, a trooper, 
Mr. Moss conjectured to refer to a yeoman trooper 
killed at the siege of Wythenshawe Hall, as it is on the 
same date. There is also the burial of Richard Twyford, 
of Didsbury, brother-in-law to Mr. Tatton, who was in 
Wythenshawe during the siege. In 1645 ''the Chansell" 
was repaired at the cost of the sequestrator of the estates 
of delinquents and papists. There is a curious entry 
relating to the " civill and bloodie warrs betwixt King 
Charles and his Paiiament," and the plundering of the 
book. Other entries mention the marriage of Captain 
Worsley, of Platt, the first M.P. for Manchester; the 
burial of Sir Edward Mosley, Lord of the Hough and 
Manchester. Also of Dame Anne Bland, she was buried 
in the Mosley Chapel of Didsbury Church. Other entries 
are: 1718, "Buried James Lester minester off Didsbury 
and kiper off the Liberary at the Collich." 1720, 
the christening of George Fletcher, possibly the 
Captain G. Fletcher whose head was stuck up on 
Temple Bar in 1746. 1730, the marriage of Tom Siddall 
to Maria Fletcher de Burnage, the Tom Siddall whose 
head was stuck up on the Manchester Exchange. The 
burial of the sister of Captain Dawson, whose sweetheart 
died on seeing him executed and mangled at the same 
time as the above-named. The burial of a Gaskill who 


was through the siege of Gibraltar under General 
Elliott, of red-hot-cannon-ball fame. Of one of the crew 
of the Bellerophon, the vessel that took Napoleon to St. 
Helena. Of Macnamara, who cleft the head of a Russian 
general in the heavy cavalry charge at Balaklava. A 
very fair list for one parish church of those who helped 
to make the history of England. Other objects of anti- 
quarian interest were the remains of the old chained 
books; the accounts of the number of centenarians 
registered who, in former years, drank of the water 
of the spring near the churchyard; of the Woods who 
held in their family the office of clerks for at least 
two hundred and fifty years; of the parish meetings 
that were always held on St. Oswald's Day; of the 
w r akes and many curious entries in the accounts of 
the churchwardens, such as the spending of fourpence 
on a Christmas treat to the new parson : and finally it 
was given out that in the Old Parsonage there was some 
elderberry and damson wine, made in 1834 by Mrs. Moss, 
who is still living, and it also was of antiquarian interest 
as being wonderfully sound and good. 

An hour was pleasantly spent in the Old Parsonage, 
Mr. Moss's residence, and its garden. 

Mr. J. S. Slinger, of Lancaster, sent to the meeting a 
paper (with illustrative map), which was read by Mr. W. 
Harrison, on his recent investigation of the Roman road 
at Bentham and Tatham. He said the tracing of the 
route of the Roman road from Ribchester to Overborough 
particularly in that part from the "Hill" in Tatham 
to the river Greeta, had been a matter of speculation for 
over fifty years. After quoting the opinion of Mr. Just in 
1848, adopted by Watkin in his Roman Lancashire, p. 81, 
that "on the highest point of the Hill estate an angle is 
formed to gain the ford at Bentham Bridge," Mr. Slinger 


OLD \ I fe 

WENKt/VGTON^ 9 Sc3/e6er 


* $& 

/*Hr f ~ oln lel ' on 
85 ' \| 

^ /' 

=a / %', 




The Roman. Road 
+ki/ ~^KTatham 



showed that for a considerable distance no ford was 
possible on account of the height of the north bank of 
the Wenning, and that the most fordable place was 
on or very near to a line to the "Ridding," which he 
suggested was the true one, and which was on the 
usual plan of the Roman roads, i.e., making the angles 
from the top of a hill or the crossing of a beck or river, 
and not like the " dog-leg" in Watkin's map, which 
makes two angles when the features of the country do not 
require it. The land being well cultivated there was not 
much prospect of finding any remains. 

Saturday, June i6th, 1894. 


About forty members of the Society, under the 
guidance of the Honorary Secretary (Mr. George G. 
Yates), visited Ince Blundell Hall and Sephton Church. 
Ince Blundell Hall is the Lancashire seat of Mr. Charles 
Joseph Weld Blundell, the representative of the ancient 
family of Weld of Lulworth Castle, whose ancestors, 
the Sherburns, were owners of Stonyhurst. Arriving at 
Sephton the party, having been met by Mr. William E. 
Gregson, of Great Crosby, the local secretary of the 
Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, drove 
past Sephton Church and the ancient well of St. 
Helen, through the village of Lunt (Lunte of Domesday 
Book), alongside the Sephton Meadows to Ince Blundell 
Hall. Ince Blundell is the Hinne of Domesday Book. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Weld Blundell the 
members were permitted to inspect the collection of 
ancient marbles gathered together by the late Mr. Henry 
Blundell, of Ince Blundell, which are now deposited 
in the room specially built for them, and known as the 


Pantheon. These marbles, which are of the deepest in- 
terest, contain examples of Greek, Roman, and Egyptian 
work, and are perhaps better known and appreciated on 
the continent than by Englishmen. The collection of 
antiques appears to be the largest private collection 
(unless the former Townley collection equalled or just 
surpassed it) which England ever possessed, though it is 
inferior to others in the number of remarkable specimens. 
It is exclusively the work of Mr. Henry Blundell (born 
1728, died 1810). Mr. Blundell had nearly attained to 
his grand climacteric, when, having accompanied Mr. 
Townley to Rome, he was present on the occasion when 
(through the agency of Jenkins) the marbles of the Villas 
Mattel and d'Este were offered for sale. An opportunity 
so alluring, of becoming possessed of well-known antique 
statues and of a collection without a gradual and tedious 
acquirement, was a temptation not to be resisted by 
Mr. Blundell. The earliest purchases were made in 
1777, among which were also copies of antiques. The 
purchases soon increased prodigiously. The above- 
mentioned collection of the Villa Mattei on the Caelian 
Hill and the Ville d'Este at Tivoli proved especially pro- 
ductive. Other specimens were furnished by different 
well-known palaces. It was Thorpe for the most part, 
ci-devant Jesuit father, who is said to have been also 
actively engaged on Townley's behalf, who advised the 
purchases, and looked after them in Rome. In May, 

1800, forty-five chests of objects of art were sold by 
auction at Christie's, which had been carried off by the 
French from the pope's apartments, and of these 
Blundell bought ten specimens. In June of the same 
year he bought eight at Lord Cawdor's sale; in April, 

1801, at that of Lord Bessborough, of Roehampton, 
twenty-two; in May, 1802, at that of Lord Mendip at 


Twickenham in his villa (formerly Mr. Alexander 
Pope's), seven specimens. The fame of the new collec- 
tion soon drew a multitude of visitors from Liverpool, 
which was annoying to the inhabitants of the house. On 
this account Mr. Blundell had a large hall with a cupola 
and circular skylight, called the " Garden Pantheon," 
built near his house for the reception of the choicest 
specimens. It was afterwards brought into immediate 
connection with the dwelling-house by a passage. Three 
large, four medium-sized, and eight smaller niches, walls, 
tables, and pedestals, and lastly the floor in this building 
received the bulk of these antiques. The staircase is 
adorned with antiques of all sorts, while individual 
specimens stand in the picture gallery. A further 
considerable storehouse is a garden house, called the 
"Garden Temple," a spacious square edifice with 
the corners cut off, the walls furnished with niches. 
The pictures, which are mostly of the early Italian and 
Dutch schools, and the library were also inspected. The 
latter contains many valuable books. 

On leaving Ince Blundell the party drove through 
Thornton and past the ancient sundial and stocks to the 
Punch Bowl Inn at Sephton, where tea was provided in 
the room in which the Mock Corporation of Sephton 
used to hold their revels. This Mock Corporation, like 
most others, degenerated from a loyalist club into a 
dining-out society. The full records of the society have 
recently been printed by Mr. W. D. Caroe, F.S.A., in 
his book, Sefton. After tea the party went through the 
ancient parish church of St. Helen at Sephton. This 
church consists of nave, chancel, two side aisles, and a 
tower surmounted by a steeple. The tower and the 
chapel on the north side are of Early Decorated work, 
about 1300 1320. The greater part of the north aisle 


is about one hundred years later, and the nave, chancel, 
and south aisle are about 1520 1535. The chancel is 
separated from the nave by an oak screen, which is 
mostly of modern work, although it has bits of old 
carving worked up in it. The stalls in the chancel, the 
screen of the south chapel, and the oak benches with 
poppy-head ends in the nave are work of about 1480 to 
1500, although these latter are not in situ. The brasses 
of the ancestors of the Earl of Sefton (Molyneuxs of 
Sefton), which are in this church, are in excellent pre- 
servation, and were carefully examined. One of these 
brasses is of Sir Richard Molyneux (who died in 1566) 
and his two wives and their children. By the first wife 
he had five sons and eight daughters, and by the second 
five sons and one daughter. They are ranged by their 
respective mothers, with the following inscription and 
quaint epitaph underneath : 

Sir Richarde Molyneux Knighte and Dame Elenore his wyffe, 
whose soules God pdon. 

Dame Worshope was my guide in lyfe 

And did my doinges guyde, 
Dame Wertue left me not alone 

When soule from bodye hyed ; 
And though that deathe with dinte of darte 

Hath brought my corps on sleape, 
The eternall God my eternall soule 

Eternally doethe kepe. 

In the same chapel are several tombs of the Molyneux 
family. One in white marble is to the memory of Caryll, 
third Viscount Molyneux, who died in 1699. Caryll was 
an eminent but unsuccessful Royalist, and was one of 
those who signed a petition to Prince Rupert for the 
relief of Lathom House in March, 1643, when it was 
besieged by the Parliamentary forces, and defended by 
the heroic Countess of Derby till the siege was raised 


by the approach of Prince Rupert's army on May 28th. 
Near his tomb is that of his wife, daughter of Alexander 
Barlow. There are also brasses of Sir William Molyneux 
(who fought at Flodden and took two banners with his 
own hand) and his two wives; and of Lady Margaret 
Bulkeley, who was a daughter of Sir T. Molyneux, and 
who founded a chantry of our Lady of Pity in the chapel 
at the east end of the south aisle. This latter brass has 
a splendid canopy inlaid in the stone, and is in almost 
perfect preservation. The pulpit is a curiously ornate 
specimen of seventeenth century work, and is adorned 
with an abundance of carving; and around it, in gilt 
letters, is the inscription, with a date, 1635 : 

He that covereth his sinne shall not prosper ; 

But who so confesseth and forsaketh them shalt have 

Mercie. Happy is the man. 

Round the sounding board are the words: 

My sonne feare thou the Lorde and the King, 
And medle not y/ith them that are given to change. 

There are six bells, two of which are of the date of 
1815. The other four are old. The registers begin 
in 1597. The first date in them is February 7th, 1597. 
In the register of marriages none are entered in the 
years 1653-56, but the page contains the following: 
"Anno 1653, 1654, 1655, 1656, all marriages made by 
justices of the peace;" and a little further we have this: 
"Anno 1657. That all ye marrying by justices was to 
continue but six months after the first sesshons of the 
P'liament," to which is appended, in another hand and 
different ink, " Ended in December." The 1720 church 
plate was by the kindness of the rector of Sephton (the 
Rev. G. W. Wall, M.A.) placed in the church for the 
inspection of the visitors. 


Saturday, July jth, 1894. 


A party of about thirty members of the Society, 
under the leadership of Mr. G. C. Yates, proceeded 
to Liverpool by the half-past twelve train, and then 
catching an early boat to Woodside arrived at the 
priory of SS. Mary and James, Birkenhead, by two. 
The ruins were thrown open to the members by the 
kindness of the Rev. Canon Linton, M.A. At the priory 
the party was met by Mr E. W. Cox, of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire Historic Society, who acted as guide, and 
gave an excellent description of this ancient fabric. 

The priory of Birkenhead was founded about 1150, 
and dissolved, among the smaller monasteries, by Henry 
VIII. in the year 1536. This monastery was inhabited 
by sixteen monks of the Benedictine order, under the 
control of a prior. When founded the appearance of 
the country around differed much from that which it 
presents now. "The greater part of the hundred of 
Wirral was one of the Earl of Chester's forests. Woods 
rich in dell and dingle girded the priory, with its grange 
and cultivated strip of land on the west;" on the north, 
the little stream of the Birken swelled into a broad pool 
at its confluence with the Mersey, and gave its name to 
the new town of Birkenhead. Nearly opposite to Birken- 
head, on the low banks of the river, lay the " Harnlet of 

The claims of the Prior of Birkenhead were extensive. 
He claimed right of pasture in Bidston, Moreton, and 
Saughall, and "to hold a court of the Manor of Claugh- 
ton." He claimed rights of fisheries, wreckage, and 
boats from the manor of Oxton to the Mersey, and a 
right of common for his own beasts and those of his 



tenants in Tranmere. He claimed the right of ferrying 
passengers from Birkenhead to Liverpool, and for building 
houses for their accommodation by Royal Letters Patent 
from Edwards II. and III. He sat in the Parliament of 
the Palatinate with the Masseys and Vernons, as well as 
with his spiritual peers, the Bishop of Lichfield, the 
Abbots of Bangor, Chester, and Combermere, and the 
priors of Norton and Stanlaw. He had full feudal juris- 
diction in his own domain. Of the charters granted to the 
prior, the first (by Edward II., 1318) conveyed the privilege 
of being allowed to erect houses, and to supply provisions 
for the accommodation of travellers, who might be de- 
tained by contrary winds and stormy weather. The prior 
accordingly added to his numerous responsibilities that of 
keeping an inn. The second charter (by Edward III., 
1332) conveyed the right of ferryage from Birkenhead to 
Liverpool, the fares being for man and horse twopence, 
or a man alone one farthing. On Saturday, the market 
day, the charges were for a man one halfpenny, for a man 
and what he could carry one penny. The market at 
Liverpool would draw many people from Wirral, and 
citizens of Liverpool, who used to resort to the shrine of 
"Our La dye of Hilbree" on the return from their 
pilgrimage, necessarily would patronise this ferry. The 
monks of the priory had also considerable dealings, in 
grain; they had granges scattered over the country, 
each with its bailiff, who superintended the operations. 
Their Liverpool house of business was in Water Street, 
"Jonathan Hunter's hoose, Watter-street," we are told. 
"This hoose being formerly ye Granary belonged to the 
priory of Birket, in Wirral, when such corne as they left 
unsould on ye market days was cared up those back stares 
of stone into an uper rome, and there lay til next market 
day. This hoose, called ye Granary of Birket Priory, was 


sould after ye dissolution of abies by yt very name." At 
the dissolution in 1536 Birkenhead was one of the first 
that fell. The property of the prior and monks riches, 
dues, convent, belfry, grange, water-mill, ferry house, and 
"ferribot," messuage and tenement, lordship and manor 
passed into the hands of King Henry VIII., and afterwards 
to one Ralph Worsley. The dislodged monks were pro- 
vided with forty shillings and a new gown, and earned a 
livelihood, some by bookbinding, some by singing at 
Wallasey or Bidstone, some perhaps by even lower 
employment, as best they could. 

Mr. Cox kindly prepared a ground plan showing all the 
buildings that now remain. The Chapter House is the 
most ancient and the most interesting part of the conven- 
tual buildings, dating from its foundation in 1150. It 
was probably used by the monks at first as their chapel, 
until they built the priory church a hundred years later, 
and it is known at the present day as St. James's Chapel. 
It is strange that this building, the oldest portion of 
the conventual buildings, should have survived all the 
others that were built subsequently. No doubt this is due 
to its greater strength and solidity, and partly because it 
was doubtless thought advisable to leave some building 
intact to serve as a private chapel for the new proprietor. 
The party then visited the crypt or cellarer's hall, the 
refectory and prior's apartments, and other parts of 
this interesting ruin, all of which were described by 
the leader. 

On leaving the priory, the party proceeded by tram to 
Birkenhead Park, through which they passed, and then 
on to Haybrick Hill Cemetery, then ascending Bidston 
Hill, and passing the observatory and lighthouse, arrived 
at Bidston Church. The present building was erected in 
1856, with the exception of the tower, which probably 


dates from 1520, and the chancel, which was built in 1882. 
The tower has many points of resemblance to the towers 
of Shotwick, Backford, and Wallasey churches. The 
only guides we have in trying to discover its age are 
the style of architecture and the armorial bearings over 
the door on its western side. The present building 
contains nothing of interest except a fine reproduction in 
mosaic by Salviati of Da Vinci's "Last Supper" as a 

To all lovers of the picturesque, Bidston village, with 
its gray gabled houses nestling between the church and 
the old hall, is too well known to need describing. There 
are surely few spots in England lying so near a great city 
that have retained their rustic beauty as completely as 
Bidston has done. Every house is a picture, and the 
whole taken together forms a scene of quaint restfulness 
that it would be difficult to equal. It is comforting to 
think that so long as the present squire reigns, at all 
events, there is nothing to fear from the desolating hand 
of the speculative builder, and may those who succeed 
him be imbued with the same spirit that has prompted 
the insertion in the deed conveying Bidston Hill to the 
corporation of the clause that preserves the rugged 
wildness of nature from being marred by the gravel paths 
and oyster-shell-trimmed flower beds of the landscape 
gardener. A visit was paid to the Old Hall. It stands 
to-day with very little change as it left the hands of its 
builder, nearly three hundred years ago. There can be 
little doubt that William, the sixth Earl of Derby, built it 
in 1620 or 1621. Whether he built the hall or not, we have 
indisputable evidence that he lived in it, from the Calendar 
of State Papers. The seven farmhouses which form the 
village of Bidston are each worthy of study, but only one 
has attained to world-wide notoriety. This was the house 


where the members were provided with tea. It was once 
a licensed house, known by the sign of the Ring o' Bells, 
and to this house Albert Smith in his wanderings came 
a visit which has been immortalised in Christopher Tadpole. 
He says : It was a little quiet grey village so very grey 
indeed and venerable and quaint that no flaunting red 
brick had dared to show itself and break the uniform 
tint of its gabled antiquity. The houses were grey, and 
so was the church tower. So also was the pedestal of 
the sundial in the churchyard, which mutely spoke its 
lessons on corroding time to all who cared to heed it. 
And the old Grange, with its mullioned windows and its 
ivy-covered gateway, was the greyest of all; there was 
scarcely any surmising as to when it had been a green, 
damp, level young house. None could have given the 
information but the church tower; but when that spoke, 
it was but of the newly past, the fleeting present, or the 
call to the future heaven. Hickory led his little companion 
by the church, and at last they stopped at a small hotel, 
with which he seemed to be well acquainted. "Whoa!" 
he cried, as he halted at the door. "Here is the Ring o' 
Bells at Bidston, and here we will put up for the night. 
Are you tired, Christy?" "I'm very hungry," replied the 
little boy. "Ah! hunger's the best sauce," observed 
Hickory. "Look there, can you read what's over the 
door? there's just light enough." "S. J. Simon Croft," 
said Christopher, staring at the board. "No, no, the 
poetry," continued Hickory. "Listen now: Walk in, 
my friends, and taste my beer and liquor; if your pockets 
be well stored, you'll find it come the quicker. Very 
good, now go on from 'quicker.'" " But for the want of 
that," read Christopher, " has c-a-u." " Has caused 
both grief and sorrow," continued Hickory. "Therefore 
you must pay to-day ! I will trust to-morrow." 


Saturday, August i&th, 1894. 

A party of members and friends of the Society, under the 
leadership of Mr. Tallent-Bateman, and with the per- 
mission of the landholders interested, visited the interesting 
height known as the Great Low, and the Roman road, 
both near Rainow. The line of the old road was traced, 
parallel to the existing road, midway between Bollington 
and Jenkin Chapel, and the slopes and summit of the 
Great Low were carefully traversed and examined for 
the purpose of coming to a conclusion whether or not the 
Low was, what the leader claimed it to be, an ancient 
British fort. The conclusion which the experts present 
came to was, that there were signs of fortification in 
and about the Low (which stands one thousand one 
hundred and fifty-nine feet above the sea-level), and 
it was proposed that a smaller party should attend 
on a later day to make further investigations. The 
party had tea at a neighbouring farm, and returned by 
way of Ingersley Hall, visiting the beautiful waterfall in 
the valley. A statement was made by a resident, that on 
the adjoining height, Billinge Head, now being extensively 
quarried, some ancient graves were opened by the late 
Mr. Croston, and it is proposed to investigate the accuracy 
of this report, as such an occurrence would throw 
considerable light on the ancient history of the immediate 
neighbourhood. It was suggested that this visit should 
be the beginning of a proposed series of visits to various 
fortified stations and sights of tumuli in the Cheshire off- 
shoots of the Pennine Range.* 

* A correspondent of the Manchester "City News (I. W. B., Ashton-under- 
Lyne), sent the following remarks on the above visit: "I recollect being 
on Great Low on one of my visits a few years ago, and noticed that the 
men who have been working the quarry there for some years had, in their 
excavations on baring the stone for quarrying, uncovered or exposed the 


Saturday, September 8th, 1894. 

A visit was paid to Turton, where the members were 
met by Mr. Thomas Hardcastle, of Bradshaw Hall, and 
Colonel Le Gendre Starkie. The former acted as leader, 
and conducted the party to the stone circles, which are 
situated on his property at Chetham's Close, or Turton 
Moor. After a careful examination of these circles, the 
members went to Clough Farm, where they were hos- 
pitably entertained by Mr. Hardcastle. Afterwards a 
meeting was held, and Dr. H. Colley March, F.S.A., was 
voted to the chair. An interesting discussion took place. 
The chairman stated that one circle was shaped like a 
galleried tumulus, the other enclosure was that of a 
so-called British village, with beehive huts. A vote of 
thanks to Mr. Hardcastle was given for the trouble he 
had taken in having these relics of the past opened out 
for the inspection of the members. (See Major French's 
paper, p. 42.) 

upper part of an old circular shaft or well, and had removed one half of 
the circle or stonework of the shaft for about six feet down. I was quietly 
examining this one day, thinking at the time that I had found the well, or 
means of supplying water to what had been one day an ancient fortress, 
when I heard a voice over my head, and, looking up, found it came from 
an aged native. We got into conversation, and he rather surprised me by- 
saying that he could recollect this shaft being worked as a colliery. The 
shaft is or was not more than about three feet six inches in diameter 
inside, and it certainly is a rather remarkable place for a coalpit shaft. 
But then again, in many places in the immediate neighbourhood, places 
can be found where they have evidently been trying for coal. Referring 
to Billinge Head and the late Mr. Croston, I am inclined to think, if he 
had ever unearthed anything worth notice there, he would have told us 
something about it. The district is rich in geological fossil. There are 
at least two tumuli ; the site of an ancient cross and fair-ground at Blue 
Boar; Sattersford Hall, one of the old black-and-white houses that date 
from about 1500, and many other matters of interest in the district." 


Friday, October I2th, 1894. 

The opening meeting of the winter session was held in 
Chetham Library, Professor Boyd Dawkins presiding. 

The following objects of interest were exhibited : 

Mr. G. C. Yates, a beautifully-worked flint scraper and 
hammer stone from Santon, and a modern stone celt 
from the Solomon Islands. 

Mr. A. Nicholson, an oval silver amulet, on the obverse 
an effigy of King Charles I., reverse, arms of the king. 

Mr. S. Jackson, a fine specimen of a perforated axe- 
hammer. Mr. Jackson said that it was found by a 
farmer whilst ploughing a field at 
Thistley Breast, Barnacre town- 
ship, about three miles east of the 
town of Garstang, about fifty years 
ago. It remained little noticed in 
a farmyard at Carter Houses until 
recently, when a gentleman took 
possession of it, and he kindly lent 
it for exhibition. The axe has 
evidently been used in late years 
as a whetstone, and must have 
been originally about twelve 
inches in length and weighs six 

pounds. Other objects of the same description have 
been found in the same neighbourhood. 

Local photographs, rare books, and other objects of 
antiquarian interest, were shown by Messrs. Dean, 
Taylor, J. R. Jackson, Professor Lobenhoffer, and John 

The President, in his opening address, congratulated 
the members on the position of the Society. It was 
firmly established among the archaeological societies of 


the country, and was doing local work of the very highest 
importance not only with regard to the period covered 
by history, but also the period beyond history in the 
remote past. Much of the success the Society had 
achieved was, without doubt, due to the indefatigable 
Secretary, Mr. Yates. The President proceeded to say 
that he had not been able to prepare a set address, and 
he was obliged to fall back upon one or two points of 
archaeological interest which had come before him during 
the last three or four months. He had been working at 
the apparently unpromising subject of human skulls. In 
digging in the Preston docks, underneath the alluvium, 
lying in association with the old forest which exists in 
that place, and amongst the stumps of trees of that 
ancient forest, a number of ancient skulls had been met 
with. He found that those skulls had belonged to people 
of very fair intellectual development. They were all oval 
skulls, tending in one or two instances towards the long- 
headed type. Of their place in European ethnology 
there would be no doubt whatever. They were 
identical with the skulls which had been found 
throughout these islands, as well as through France and 
Spain, and were to be found to-day in the cemeteries 
of the modern Basques. Thus they had evidence of 
the ancient population of this country being Iberian. 
It was interesting to note that along with those skulls 
they got some others which were of a different type 
altogether. These others were round skulls with high 
cheek bones, and belonged to a newer type, which made 
its appearance in this country in the Bronze Age. In 
the Preston docks excavations, bronze implements were 
met with, so that they had both the bronze implements 
and the people who introduced them side by side. Both 
the types, the Iberian and the Celtic, were amply repre- 


sented in the present population of our islands. He had 
been re-measuring the collection of skulls made in Derby- 
shire by the two Batemans during the first half of the 
century, and had been astonished to find the enormous 
preponderance of the Celtic type. The Celtic people 
were the dominant inhabitants of Derbyshire in the 
Bronze Age. He had been skull hunting, too, in 
Yorkshire. What he had said about Derbyshire might 
well extend to the greater county; and with regard to 
the south of England, also, the round-headed Celtic skulls 
were universally associated with the Bronze Age, although 
in places they were also found with the longer ones, 
showing that there was then a Celtic-Iberian mixture in 
this country as there also was in France and Spain. The 
Iberians were the smaller people, and were pre- Aryan. 

At Glastonbury, in Somersetshire, an excavation com- 
mittee, of which he was a member, had made some 
curious discoveries during the last two years. They had 
found that the prehistoric lake-dwellers there, besides 
being herdsmen, had learned how to spin and weave. 
Vast numbers of bits of looms had been met with there. 
The woodwork they had left behind was singularly beauti- 
ful, and was evidently executed with iron tools, a number 
of which had been found. They carried on the process 
of smelting, for traces of the process had been found, and 
there had been a number of finds of bronze safety 
pin brooches. The safety pin brooch came in in 
the prehistoric Iron Age. Beads and pieces of half- 
melted glass were among the unearthed evidences of their 
accomplishments. Looking at these things, it was 
perfectly astonishing that people acquiring those arts 
should have had such a frightfully uncomfortable place as 
the lake village for their head-quarters. It showed that 
the country must have been in a very disturbed state at 


the time. Two skulls had been found outside the village. 
They were of the type found predominating in the place, 
and they bore sword marks, as though their owners were 
slain in battle. Professor Dawkins exhibited a series of 
photographs to illustrate his address. 

The Rev. I. R. Luck, S.J., sent a paper (which was 
read in his absence by Mr. Yates) on the opening of a 
large tumulus near Stonyhurst. (See page 30.) Most of 
the objects found in the tumulus were sent for exhibition, 
and were described by Dr. Colley March. 

The Rev. E. F. Letts read a short paper, contributed 
by Monsignor Gradwell, on " The Oldest Church in 
Lancashire." (See page 100.) A discussion took place, 
after the reading of this paper, in which Messrs. 
Fishwick, D. F. Howorth, Bowden, and Letts took part. 

The Honorary Secretary reported that an interesting 
antiquarian discovery was made recently at Stanton 
Low, Furness, limestone quarries. A quarryman had 
put in a blast low down in the limestone rock, and 
amongst the fragments of stone thrown up were two 
large bronze celts in a remarkably good state of preserva- 
tion. One was a palstave and the other was socketed. 

Saturday, October i$th, 1894. 

A party of the members visited Wardley Hall, under 
the leadership of the Honorary Secretary, to examine 
some fine old chimney-pieces and ceilings, which had 
come to light during extensive alterations. The mem- 
bers were met by Mr. F. E. Cairns, the present tenant, 
who kindly accompanied them round the hall, and 
pointed out the numerous objects of interest, including 
the celebrated skull, of which the leader gave a short 



Friday, November 2nd, 1894. 

The monthly meeting was held in Chetham Library, 
Lieut. -Colonel Fishwick, F.S.A., presiding. 

Amongst the archaeological objects exhibited was a 
beautiful bronze Roman fibula, by Mr. Tattersall 
Wilkinson, of Burnley. In his description of it he said, 
" It is in a remarkable 
state of preservation, and 
has suffered very little 
from oxidisation. The 
composition of the metals 
of which these articles are 
made seems almost to 
have been lost, for we have 
no metals that have such 
a property of resisting 
oxidisation. It was found on the Burnley moors, about 
eighteen inches under the surface." Mr. Wilkinson also 
found a bronze coin of Marcus Aurelius in close proximity 
about two years ago. 

Mr. Churchill exhibited a bronze celt (palstave) found 
at Adswood, Stockport, about 1892, at a depth of four- 
teen to fifteen feet, whilst digging a drain. 

Mr. George C. Yates, F.S.A., read a short communica- 
tion on hollow scrapers, and exhibited in illustration two 
from different Irish localities, one from Sussex, and 
another from Waddy Haifa. In speaking of flint 
scrapers the designation of hollow scraper may be 
applied, the scraping edge being concave instead of, as 
usual, convex. They appear to have been used for 
scraping some cylindrical objects. Tools of this kind 
seem well adapted for scraping into regular shape the 
stems of arrows, or the shafts of spears, or for fashioning 
bone pins. 


Mr. S. Andrew exhibited some relics from a funeral 
mound at Craig Neish, Port St. Mary. 

Mr. J. Redford exhibited and presented to the Society 
a photograph of the Saxon cross in Bolton Church. 

Mr. S. Jackson gave the following list of the bases of 
crosses found in the district of Garstang: Brunah Hill, 
near Garstang, one not far from the station ; one at Cross 
Hill, near Street Bridge; one at Goosnargh, north side 
of Beaton Fell; one at Grisedale Lee, on the Roman 
road, now removed; one at Claughton; one near the 
Brockholes Arms, Garstang; one not far from the station 
at Leyland; one at the corner of School Lane, Walton- 
le-Dale; one at Halton; one at Broad Gate, Bleasdale, 
and one at the cross road, near Barnacre Lodge. He 
also gave drawings of figures sculptured on gravestones 
in Heysham Churchyard. 

Mr. W. T. Browne exhibited some water-colour 
drawings of Turton, Clayton, and old houses in Man- 
chester; one of the drawings by John Cozens, 1790. 

Mr. Samuel Andrew read a paper on Copy Nook, 
Oldham. The original Copy Nook was evidently a large 
mound, which was removed during the Cotton Famine. 
It occupied the site of the present Mechanics' Institute 
at Werneth. The Manchester Scientific Students had 
claimed Copy Nook as an instance of early coal-getting, 
and Mr. H. T. Crofton had fixed the period of these 
early mining efforts in Roman times. When the mound 
was removed by Messrs. Platt Brothers, no traces of coal 
or coal cinders were discovered, but a great number of 
pits were found extending up the hill towards Werneth 
Hall Road, which were dug in bell-shaped form, the rims 
of each almost touching each other. There were said to 
have been about sixty of these pits in all. It was well 
known that pits had been found near Roman camps, but 


what their use had been was uncertain. Some claimed 
them for mere ash middens. At Werneth Roman coins 
and a Roman patera had been found, some of them 
within half a mile of this place. Mr. Andrew could not 
say whether the pits had been dug for getting coal, 
although he showed a plan of the seams of coal, which 
outcrop at Werneth. A gentleman still living, who took 
great interest in the removal of the mound, doubted if 
the pits had been used for getting coals. The pits were 
filled up with broken pottery, and showed signs of fire, 
though not coal fires, burnt earth or clay being found in 
large quantity. Unfortunately, none of these potsherds 
had been preserved, the stuff being all carted away to 
find work for the cotton operatives during the Cotton 
Famine. Recently great light had been thrown on the 
abodes of the primeval inhabitants, and Mr. Andrew 
showed that these bell-shaped holes corresponded with 
the descriptions given of these primitive dwellings by 
both old and modern writers. Members of the same 
race as the ancient Britons still used these bell-shaped 
earth dwellings, which were entered from the top by a 
ladder, lateral shafts for cattle being driven underneath. 
The absolute proof of these pits being used as earth 
dwellings had departed with the rubbish carted away 
when the mound was removed. But there still remained 
the names of the places, which were of British origin, 
namely, Copy Nook and Werneth, "Nook" from 
" Cnwc," suggesting a rock-shelter, and "Werneth" from 
"Gwernydd," denoting the open field system. 

Colonel Fishwick doubted Mr. Andrew's conclusions, 
and an interesting discussion ensued, in which Messrs. 
William Harrison, R. Langton, J. Taylor, and others 
took part. 

Colonel Fishwick communicated the following, re- 


ferring to Henry Sagar, mentioned in Transactions of the 
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, vol. x., p. 218: 
Depositions of Witnesses in a suit at Lancaster inter 
Mr. Henry Halsted clerk Ptiff and Rich. Townley Esq. 
Def. 29 March 1698 " James Sager deposith that he had 
known the way (in dispute thro' Habergham demesne to 
Hapton Tower) 45 years, having farmed y e Coalpit for 3 
years; he did then see 'em (i.e., the Towneley's servants 
and the Towneleys themselves) constantly ride down 
without any disturbance and y 1 his father being an 
hundred and five years of age and a neighbour did never 
know it in his long time to be closed." As neither bap- 
tism nor burial of any James Sager is to be found in the 
Burnley Register about the required time, but as the 
following entry occurs in the marriages it is probable 
that he lived in Hapton and would be baptised and 
buried at Padiham. "James Sager and Anna Heye of 
Hapton married December 3rd 1671." 

Thursday, November zgth, 1894. 


A special meeting was held in the Manchester Town 
Hall, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.S.A., presiding. The 
Rev. Dr. J. C. Cox, F.S.A., gave a lecture on English 
mediaeval seals, which he illustrated by an excellent 
series of photographs thrown on the screen by the oxy- 
hydrogen lantern. 

Dr. Cox remarked that the history of English mediaeval 
seals yet remained to be written. Only one branch of 
the subject had been at all adequately dealt with, namely, 
the history of the great or royal seals of England, by Mr. 
Wyon. The late Mr. Laing, of Edinburgh, had brought 
out a work on Scottish seals some few years ago, but 


much more was now known on the subject. English 
episcopal, monastic, private, heraldic, and municipal 
seals each deserved a monograph, for they bore most 
intimately upon the art, costume, customs, and history of 
the times in which they were made. The student had 
now to be content with searching into the subject at first 
hand for himself, and finding some help in a few scattered 
papers among the transactions of London or provincial 
archaeological societies. The best of these was a paper 
on the seals of the English bishops, by Mr. W. H. St. 
John Hope, published in 1887 in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries. Englishmen had reason to be 
proud of their seals, for the art they showed in the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries was far 
better than anything to be discovered in continental 
seals of the like periods. All he could do that evening 
was to offer a few general observations on the 
subject, and then to say a little on particular 
branches of the question, illustrating them by lantern 
pictures of groups of seals of the different kinds, chosen 
from the best examples in the British Museum. After 
remarking on the materials of which seals and seal 
impressions were made, and the mode of attaching them 
to documents, Dr. Cox proceeded to describe and illus- 
trate a selection from the royal seals of England. The 
earliest example of this class is that of Offa, King of 
Mercia, 757-796, an impression of which of the year 790 
is preserved at Paris. At Paris also is preserved the 
seal of Edgar, King of East Anglia, 960, whilst at the 
British Museum is the lead bulla of Ceonwulf, King of 
Mercia, 800-810. Seals were shown and their characteris- 
tics enumerated of Edward the Confessor, William the 
Conqueror, William Rufus, John, Henry III., Edward 
I., Edward II., Edward III., Philip and Mary, and 


Elizabeth. To these royal seals succeeded illustrations 
and descriptions of the curious use of antique classical 
gems in mediaeval settings, some of the thirteenth century 
English bishops even incorporating in their official seals 
small gems, in which were depicted such objects as a 
Venus, a Ganymede, or a Satyr. This custom, both in 
private and official seals, prevailed in England from the 
twelfth to the fourteenth century. English heraldic seals 
were next shown, including those of Simon de Montfort, 
Earl of Leicester, and Edward I. as prince and heir 
apparent. The next group dealt with were Saxon and 
early monastic seals of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, 
including those of St. Cuthbert, Durham; St. Dunstan's, 
Winchester; and the abbeys of Sherborne, Bath, St. 
Albans, and Bury St. Edmunds. Later, monastic seals 
followed, and then an account of the development and 
decadence in the beautiful series pertaining to English 
prelates. Dr. Cox mentioned the Archbishop of York 
and the Bishop of Salisbury as two now on the episcopal 
bench who had reverted to excellent old examples and 
used worthy seals. Old municipal seals were divided 
into three main groups : (i) Heraldic, usually borrowed 
from some great local man or family ; (2) castles, or 
rather fortified gateways, the usual form of an inland 
town seal; and (3) ships or boats, a common cognisance 
of our sea-board towns or ports. Occasionally they used 
the figures or emblem of the town's patron saint. The 
last picture thrown upon the screen was the present 
great seal of England, with the Queen supported by 
allegorical figures representing Justice and Religion. It 
was originally struck in 1837, an< ^ nas smce been twice 
renewed in duplicate, namely, in 1860 and in 1878. Dr. 
Cox remarked in conclusion that he was sure he was 
expressing everyone's opinion when he expressed a 


hope that the day was far distant when the present 
great seal of the great and good woman, who had 
ruled over nine millions of square miles and three 
hundred millions of subjects for more than half a 
century, would have to be broken up. But when the 
day came he trusted that Edward VII. would revert to 
the best examples of ancient English seal making as 
models of what the great seal of a great nation should be. 
Several matrices and impressions therefrom were ex- 
hibited by Mr. G. C. Yates, F.S.A. Major French 
showed a fine series of English seals collected by his 
father. Miss J. B. Strong sent a drawing of the seal of 
Walter Marshall, fourth Earl of Pembroke. On the 
motion of Colonel Fishwick, seconded by Mr. Nicholson, 
a cordial vote of thanks was given to Dr. Cox for his 

Friday, December jth, 1894. 

The monthly meeting was held in the Chetham Library, 
Mr. William Harrison presiding. 

The Rev. F. R. C. Hutton, of Bolton, read a paper 
on "The Churches of the Hambleton Hills," which he 
illustrated by some of his own original drawings. 

Mr. W. E. A. Axon sent a paper (read in his absence 
by Mr. G. C. Yates) on "Visitations of the Plague in 
Lancashire and Cheshire." (See page 52.) Some in- 
teresting remarks were made by the Rev. E. F. Letts on 
this paper. 

The following new members were elected : Norman 
Sheldon, Francis M. Jackson, Robert Falkner, and Miss 
Alice M. Stead. 


Mr. G. C. Yates, F.S.A.: Seventeenth century tokens 
of Chester, Ormskirk, Warrington, Liverpool, and one of 


Bolton. Obverse, "Ralph Matther in Boulton. R.M.E. 
A bolt in a tun." Reverse, "Hester Matther in Boulton. 
His penny 1670." This token is not mentioned in the 
last edition of Boyne. Axehead, found by Sir John 
Evans in a barrow on the Downs, between Newhaven 
and Jelscombe, in 1866. An Irish flint flake, four and a 
quarter inches by two and a half inches. 

Mr. T. Parker: Three pipe heads, temp. Charles I., 
found at Oldham. 

Mr. R. Barber: Tea tray, with painting in oil of the 
Manchester Infirmary, about 1790 to 1800. 

Mr. John Owen: Indenture of agreement, dated i8th 
April, 1724, between the churchwardens and overseers of 
Droylsden and Robert Hulme, of Blackley, the former 
of whom bind to the latter a poor boy named Otho 
Hulme, eight years of age, until he was twenty-four 
years old, paying with him twenty shillings for the first 
year, and ten shillings for the second, in order that he 
might learn the trade of a linen weaver; the master 
covenanting to give to the apprentice at Christmas, "if 
it should be demanded," the sum of sixpence, and to find 
him in food and apparel and "Shooes and Hatts." The 
signatories are Geo. and James Cheetham and Robert 
Hulme. Mr. Owen also exhibited extracts from the 
register of Middleton Church. 

Sir William Cunliffe Brookes : Testimonial presented to 
him by the Manchester Corporation in recognition of his 
gift of the Lady Mayoress's chain. 

Mr. Charles Madeley: Drawing of a stone axe-hammer 
from Harbarrow, Dalton-in-Furness, presented to the 
Warrington Museum in 1866. 


Friday, January nth, 1895. 

The monthly meeting was held in the Chetham 
Library, Mr. J. Holme Nicholson, M.A., presiding. 

Mr. Nathan Heywood exhibited a series of gold coins 
of Roman emperors, and Mr. S. Jackson a photograph 
of a quern found near Garstang. 

Mr. G. C. Yates showed a collection of obsidian 
implements from Mexico, consisting of cores, flakes, 
scrapers, arrowheads, knives, and razors. Describing 
them, he said that out of this unpromising material the 
ancient Mexicans made the implements now exhibited 
and other things, some of great beauty, particularly the 
polished mirrors and curious masks of the human face. 
Cortes found the barbers at the great market busy 
shaving the natives with obsidian razors, and he and his 
men had experience of other uses of the same material 
in the flights of obsidian-headed arrows which "darkened 
the sky," as they said, and the more deadly wooden maces 
stuck all over with obsidian points, and of the priest's 
sacrificial knives. These things were not cut and 
polished, but made by chipping or cracking off pieces 
from a lump. 

Mr. William Harrison read a paper on "Ancient 
Fords, Ferries, and Bridges in Lancashire." (See p. i.) 

An interesting discussion took place after the reading 
of the paper, in which Messrs. N. Heywood, A. 
Nicholson, the Chairman, and the Rev. E. F. Letts took 


1893 & 1894. 


[I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Ernest Axon, compiler of 
the previous Bibliographies, for valued assistance and suggestions.] 

Abram (William Alexander). Blackburn Characters of a Past Generation, 

by William Alexander Abram, . . . brought to press by his son, 

with a memoir by a friend of the author. Blackburn, 1894. 8vo, pp. 

Ixxvi, 369. With portrait and illustrations. 

Dinkley and Hacking Halls. See Philips (N. G.). 

Allen (J. Romilly). The Early Christian Monuments of Lancashire and 

Cheshire. Illustrated. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., ix. 1-32. 
Andrew (S.). Bucton. L. and C. Antiq. Soc., x. 46-66. 
Arnold (William). See Manch. Monthly. 
Atkinson (Rev. J. A.). See Chetham Society. 
Axon (Ernest). Bibliography of Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquities, 

with Subject Index, 1892. L. and C. Antiq. Soc., x. 230-236. 
The Family of Bayley of Manchester and Hope. Manchester: 

Printed for the Author, 1894. 4 to > PP- [ y i] 62. Illustrated. 

Pedigree of the Family of Grenville. With the descent of Hugh 

R. C. Birley and Bevil L. Birley from Sir Bevil Grenville. Compiled 
for Hugh A. Birley, Esq. Manchester: Printed for private circula- 
tion, 1893. 8vo, pp. iv, 24. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 149 

Axon (William E. A.). The Library of Richard Brereton of Ley, 1557. 
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Manchester and Macclesfield Pardon Brasses. L. and C. Antiq. 

Soc., x. 99-110. 

Wardley Hall. See Philips (N. G.). 

Ayre (L. R.). Arnside Tower. See Philips (N. G.). 

Baines (Edward). The History of the County Palatine and Duchy of 
Lancaster. By the late Edward Baines, Esq. A new, revised, and 
enlarged edition. Edited by James Croston. Vol. v. Manchester: 
John Heywood, 1893. 4to, pp. xi, 666. 

Bamford (S.). Passages in the life of a Radical, and Early Days. 
Edited, with an introduction, by Henry Dunckley ("Verax"). Lon- 
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Barber (Henry, M.D.). Furness and Cartmel Notes, or jottings of 
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Barlow (W. S.). The Good Old Bury Simnel. Bury : W. S. Barlow and 
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i Beechey (Canon St. Vincent).] The rise and progress of Rossall School. 
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Beecroft (Jas.). See Manchester Monthly. 

Blomfield (Reginald). Manchester Cathedral, 1893. Manchester Guardian, 

January 3ist, 1893. 
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Green, and Co., 1893. 4to, pp. xxiii, 520. Illustrated. 

150 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 

Chetham Society, n.s., 27. Notes on the Churches of Lancashire. By 
the late Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart. Edited by Rev. J. A. Atkinson, 
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Council, pp. 5. 

n.s., 28. Lancashire and Cheshire Wills and Inventories, 1572 to 
1696, now preserved at Chester. With an appendix of Lancashire and 
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- n.s., 29 and 30. The Poems of John Byrom. Edited by Adolphus 
William Ward, Litt.D., Hon.LL.D. Vol. i., parts i. and ii., 1894. 
4to, pp. xxxi, 602. 

n.s., 31. Materials for the History of the Church of Lancaster. 

Edited by William Oliver Roper. Vol. ii., 1894. 4 to > PP- [i y ]. 2 59- 

529. With an illustration. 
- n.s., 32. Notes on the Churches of Cheshire. By the late Sir 

Stephen R. Glynne, Bart. Edited by Rev. J. A. Atkinson, M.A., 

D.C.L. 1894. 4to, pp. [iv] 152. 
Childwall. Pew-holders in Childwall Church, 1609. Hist. Soc. of L. and 

C., n.s., vii. and viii. 327-328. 
Clay (Dr. Charles). Obituary notice. Manch. City News, September 

23rd, 1893. 
Clay (John W., F.S.A.). See Hunter (Joseph). 

Collier (John). The Works of John Collier (Tim Bobbin) in prose and 
verse. Edited, with a life of the author, by Lieut. -Colonel Henry 
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viii, 399. Illustrated. 

Cowper (H. Swainson, F.S.A.). The Ancient Settlements, Cemeteries, 
and Earthworks of Furness. Archaologia, second series, iii., part ii., 
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See also Ferguson (R. S.). 

Cox (Edward W.). Are the " Marks " in certain Wirral Churches guides 
to measurements? Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. and viii. 326. 

Flints found in Wirral. Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc., v., part i., 

pp. 108-110. Illustrated. 

Fragments of a Saxon Cross found at West Kirby. Chester Arch. 

and Hist. Soc., v., part i., 108. Illustrated. 

Notes on the Sculptures of the Roman Monuments recently found 

in Chester. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. and viii. 91-102. 

Overchurch and its Runic Stone. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. 

and viii. 305-320. Illustrated. 
Speke Hall. See Philips (N. G.). 

Credland (W. R.). The Althorp Library. Manch. Quarterly, xii. 135-147, 
and Manch. Guard., January 14th, 1893. 

Crisp (F. A.). See Howard (J. J.). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 151 

Crofton (H. T.). Manchester Gilds and the Records of the Lichfield 
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Our Village Communities. Glimpses of old Greater Manchester. 

Manch. City News, May I3th, 1893. 

Crosby. See Little Crosby. 

Crosse Deeds. Schedule of Deeds and Documents, the property of Colonel 
Thomas Richard Crosse, preserved in the muniment-room at Shaw 
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Crowther (J. S.). An Architectural History of the Cathedral Church of 
Manchester, dedicated to St. Mary, St. George, and St. Denys, with 
illustrations. Edited by Frank Renaud, M.D., F.S.A. Manchester: 
J. E. Cornish, 1893. Fol., pp. xv, 50, and 40 plates. 

Davies (E. A.). See Oxley (H. M.). 

Dean (John). Cardinal Langley's work at Middleton Church. L. and C. 
Antiq. Soc., xi. 57-81. 

Dolan (Dom Gilbert, O.S.B.). Notes on the ancient Religious Houses of 
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Dunckley (Henry). See Bamford (S). 

Earle (T. Algernon) and Radcliffe (R. D., M.A.). The Child Marriage of 
Richard, second Viscount Molyneux, with some notices of his life, from 
contemporary documents. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. and viii. 

Early English Text Society, 108. Child Marriages, Divorces, Ratifica- 
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in the Bishop's Court, Chester .... also entries from the Mayor's 
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portrait of F. J. Furnivall. 

Earwaker (J. P.). See Chetham Society; Philips (N. G.). 

Ebblewhite (E. A., F.S.A.). Cheshire Names. Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc., 
v., part i., pp. 58-65. 

Elliott (Rev. W. Hume). The Country and Church of the Cheeryble 
Brothers. [Ramsbottom, and the Brothers William and Daniel Grant.] 
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Espinasse (Francis). Literary Recollections and Sketches. London: 
Hodder and Stoughton, 1893. 8vo, pp. xv, 426. The following 
chapters refer to Lancashire : 

IV. The Carlyles and a Segment of their Circle Chapter viii., Geraldine 
Jewsbury ; chapter ix , Carlyle in Manchester. 

V. George Henry Lewes and George Eliot Chapter ii., Lewes in Man- 

VII. Leigh Hunt and his Second Journal Sketch of John Stores Smith, of 

VIII. Manchester Memories : Edwin Waugh. 

152 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 

[Evans (John).] Manchester Cathedral : Past and Present. Republished 
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Fell (John). Pile of Fouldray. See Philips (N. G.). 

Ferguson (R. S., M.A., LL.M., F.S.A.). An Archaeological Survey of 
Cumberland and Westmorland . . . and of Lancashire North-of- 
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Finlayson (Dr. T. Campbell). Obituary notice. Manch, Guard., February 
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Fishwick (Lieut.-Colonel Henry, F.S.A.). Ancient Stone Font at Roch- 
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A History of Lancashire. Popular County Histories. London : 

Elliot Stock, 1894. 8vo, pp. vi, 305. 

Lancashire Ministers, A.D. 1643-1654-55. Antiquary, vol. xxx., 


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Galloway (John). Obituary notice. Manch. Guard., February I3th, 1894. 

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Chapter viii., pp. 144-146 deals with Cheshire, pp. 155-157 with Lancashire. 
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Holyoake (George Jacob). Self-help by the People. The history of the 
Rochdale Pioneers. 1844-92. Tenth edition, revised and enlarged, 
London : Swan, Sonnenschien, & Co., 1893. i2mo, pp. xv, 91. Illus- 
trated. Social Science Series. 

Horley (Engelbert). See Caroe (W. D.). 

Howard (Joseph Jackson) and Crisp (Frederick Arthur). Visitation of 
England and Wales. Privately printed, 1893-4. Fol., 2 vols. 
Pedigrees of families connected with Lancashire and Cheshire : 

Vol. i. Assheton of Downham, 71-72 ; Byrth, 224 ; Eshelby of Birkenhead, 
225-226; Johnson of Eccleston, 85-87; Littledale of Bolton Hall, Craven, 238-240; 
Molyneux of Ludlow, co. Salop, 116-117; Pilkington of Liverpool, 254-256; 

154 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 

Platt-Higgins, 99-104; Prentice of Oxton, 148-149; Rylands of Highfield, 14-17; 
Tempest of Tong Hall, co. York, and Aughton, co. Lane , 35-37 ; Tudsberry 
Turner, 189-192. 

Vol. ii. Bright of Liverpool, 16-17; Dugdale of Griffin, Blackburn, 73-76; 
Dugdale of Wroxall Abbey, co. Warwick, 105-107; Joynson of Liscard, 
Wallasey, 54-56; Lockett of Liverpool, 108-112; Percival, formerly of Man- 
chester, 68-72, with a silhouette of Dr. Percival, F.R.S.; Tempest of Broughton 
in Craven [and Heaton, co. Lane.], 139-144. 

Hughes (T. Cann, M.A.). The Misericordes in Chester Cathedral. 
Illustrated. Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc., v., part i, pp. 46-57. 

Pemberton's Parlour, Chester. Journal of British Arch. Assoc., 49, 
pp. 76-78. 

Hunter (Joseph). Familise minorum gentium. Vol. i. Edited by John 
W. Clay, F.S.A. Harleian Soc., 37. London, 1894. La. 8vo, pp. 
xi, 420. 

Contains many families, principally Dissenting, connected with Lancashire 
and Cheshire. 

Huntington (Rev. George, M.A.). Random Recollections of some noted 
Bishops, Divines, and Worthies of the " Old Church" of Manchester. 
. . . London: Griffith, Farran, and Co., 1893. 8vo, PP- 3 2 - 

Contains: i. A great Head-master and Bishop James Prince Lee, D.D., first 
Bishop of Manchester, ii. A large-hearted Prelate James Fraser, D.D., second 
Bishop of Manchester, xi. A dear old Dean G. H. Bowers, D.D., Dean of 
Manchester, xii. A genial Principal Richard Parkinson, D.D., Principal of St. 
Bees, and Canon of Manchester, xiii. An old-fashioned Churchman Cecil 
Daniel Wray, Canon of Manchester. xiv. An odd Minor Canon W. W. 
Johnson, Minor Canon of Manchester, xv. A batch of Old Church worthies 
George Pilkington, William Andrew, Humphrey Nichols, Dr. John Boutflower. 

Ireland (Alexander). Obituary notice. Manch. Guard., December 8th, 

Irvine (W. Fergusson). Notes on the ancient parish of Bidston. Illus- 
trated. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., ix. 33-80. 

Notes on the Domesday Survey, so far as it relates to the hundred 
of Wirral. Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc., v., part i, pp. 72-83. 

- Place Names in the hundred of Wirral. Hist. Soc. of L. and C. 
n.s., vii. and viii. 279-304. 

- Two Cheshire Deeds. [Circa 1250 and 1391.] Hist. Soc. of L. 
and C., n.s., ix. 219-220. 

See also Wirral Notes and Queries. 

Kenyon (Lord), Manuscripts in possession of. Historical Manuscripts 
Commission. Fourteenth report, appendix, part iv. London. 1894, 
8vo, pp. xi, 703. 

Contains many references to events and persons in Lancashire and Cheshire 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and particularly to Lancashire 
during the rebellion of 1745. 

Lancashire Church Plate. Manch. Guard., August 6th, 1894. 

Church Plate of the sevententh century. Manch. Guard., Sep- 
tember 22nd, 1894. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 155 

Leary (Fred.). See Manch. Monthly. 

Letts (Rev. E. F., M.A.). The Family of Mosley, and their Brasses in 
Manchester Cathedral. L. and C. Antiq. Soc., xi. 82-102. Illustrations 
and pedigree. 

Leyland (Henry). An address to the inhabitants of Chowbent ; containing 
an account of some events relative to the White Horse public-house 
being deprived of its license . . . By Henry Leyland, landlord 
[ r 795]- [Reprinted 1893.] i2mo, pp. 16. 

Madeley (Charles). Bold Old Hall. See Philips (N. G .). 

Makinson (C.). Report, revised and extended, of the Chairman of the 
Museum and Libraries Committee (Mr. Alderman Makinson) upon 
the -result of his examination of the Manuscript Volume of ancient 
Court Records relating to the Borough of Salford. August, 1894. 
Salford: W. F. Jackson and Sons. 8vo, pp. 58. 

Letters on these records appeared in the Manch. Guardian of August aoth, 
2ist, 22nd, 1894, and an article in the same paper on September 22nd. 

Mallory (Rev. H. L., M.A.). Mobberley. L. and C. Antiq. Soc., x. 92-98. 

Manchester : An historical record of some recent enterprises of the 
Corporation of Manchester and of its co-operation in the completion of 
the Manchester Ship Canal. [Edited by Alderman Harry Rawson.] 
Manchester: Henry Blacklock and Co., 1894. 4 to > PP- x "i> J 9 2 - 

and Salford a hundred years ago. Manch. Guard., February 4th, 


Cathedral. Builder, April ist, 1893. pp. 250-252. Illustrated. 
Cross Street Chapel. Proceedings on the occasion of the Bi- 

Centenary of the Chapel. June 24th-25th, 1894. Manchester: 1894. 
i2mo, pp. 68, 23. 

Cross Street Chapel Bi-Centenary. Manch. City News, June 23rd, 
1894; Manch. Guard., June 23rd, 1894. 

Missions and Missioners. Manch. Guard., January 28th, 1893. 
College, Oxford. Proceedings and addresses on the occasion of 

the opening of the College Buildings and dedication of the Chapel, 
October iSth-igth, 1893. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1894. 
la. 8vo, pp. [xii] 160 [iv] . Illustrated. 

Manchester Faces and Places. Vol. iv. Birmingham : J. G. Hammond and Co. 
Contains, besides portraits and views of modern buildings, pictures and 
descriptions of Ashton Old Hall, Booth Hall. Bradshaw Hall Capesthorne Hall, 
Charlestown, Chetham's Library, Darcy Lever Old Hall, Dunham Park, 
Handforth Hall, Hough End Hall, Lancashire Independent College, Marple 
Hall, Platt Church, St. Ann's Church, St. James's Church, Turton Tower, 
Unnston Hall, Wythenshawe Hall. 

- Vol. V. 

Baguley Hall, Manchester Cathedral, Chetham's Library (the Reading-room), 
Didsbury Parish Church, Gawthorpe Hall, Hoghton Tower, Hopwood Hall, 
Little Mitton Hall, Mobberley Church, Platt Chapel, Rufford Old Hall, 
Samlesbury Hall, Stonyhurst College, Tabley Old Hall. 

156 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 

Manchester Monthly. Edited by Abraham Stansfield. Vol. i., Nos. 1-12 [all 
issued]. Manchester: S. Moore and Son, 1894. Articles on local 
history and antiquarian topics: 

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Border : A study of the people and their 
dialect, by Tim Bobbin, jun. Review of Newbigging's Forest of Rossendale. 
Thomas de Quincey, by the Editor. Samuel Crompton, by M. E. Bradshaw- 
Isherwood. An old Lancashire Botanist [John Nowell], by the Editor. James 
Wolfenden, the Lancashire Mathematician, by James Beecroft. Gawsworth, by 
M. E. Bradshaw-Isherwood. The Manchester Press: A history, by Fred Leary. 
Marple, by M. E. Bradshaw-Isherwood. Lancashire in Early Times, by 
William Arnold. Old Manchester: Curiosities of the Court-Leet Records. 
Warrington, by William Arnold. 

Manchester Weekly Times. Illustrated articles of antiquarian interest : 

1893. Manchester Cathedral (January 6th and isth); Morleys Hall (January 
aoth) ; Handforth Hall (J anuary 27th) ; Smithells Hall (February 3rd) ; Traffbrd 
Hall and Park (February 24th); Wythenshawe Hall (March i7th); Rochdale 
(April 7th, i4th, May 5th) ; Manchester to Rudyard Lake (May i2th and igth); 
Frodsham and Overton (May 26th, June 2nd) ; Pendle (June gth, i6th, and 23rd) ; 
Sandbach and district (July i4th and 2ist); Little Moreton Hall (August i8th 
and 25th); Manchester to Lymm (September ist and 8th); Tabley Hall 
(October 6th); Alderley Edge (October i3th and 2oth); Boggart Ho' Clough 
(October 27th) ; The Cheshire Prophet [Robert Nixon] and Delamere Forest 
(November 3rd). 

1894. Rushbearing and Wakes (August 24th). 

Mather (J. Marshall). Rambles round Rossendale. Second series. Ra\v- 
tenstall : J. J. Riley, 1894. 4 to . PP- y i. I ^4- Illustrated. 

Milne (F. A., M.A., Editor). Ecclesiology. Gentleman's Magazine 
Library. London : Elliot Stock, 1894. 8vo. pp. 209-252, Documen- 
tary history of English Cathedrals ; pp. 214, Chester ; pp. 256-278, 
Cathedral Schools ; pp. 262, Chester. 

Milner (Geo.). Edwin Waugh : An estimate and biographical sketch. 
Manch. Quarterly, xii. 36-66. 

The Story of Bennett Street School and its connection with St. 

Paul's Church. St. Paul's Bazaar Album. Edited by Geo. Milner. 
Manchester: Samuel Richards, 1893. 8vo [pp. 1-9]. 

Morris (Rupert H., D.D.). Chester in the Plantagenet and Tudor Reigns. 

[Chester] Printed for the author [1894]., la. 8vo, pp. x, 583-25. 

Mortimer (John). A Factory Town : Staly bridge. H. Bannerman and 

Sons Limited Diary and Buyers' Guide, 1893. 8vo, 73-135, Illustrated. 

Across Lindow Common. A deserted burying ground of the 

Quakers. Manchester City News, April i5th, 1893. 

An Ancient Meeting-house of the Quakers [Newton-in-Cartmel] . 

Manch. City News, December 2nd, 1893. 

Cotton Spinning : The Story of the Spindle. Manch., 1895 [1894] . 

8vo, pp. [xx] 140. Illustrated. Reprinted from Messrs. H. Banner- 
man and Sons Limited Diary and Buyers' Guide for 1895. 

Early Baptist Pilgrims in Cheshire. Manch. City News, May 

i3th, 1893. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 157 

Moss (Fletcher). A History of the old Parish Church of Cheadle, in 
Cheshire, comprising the townships of Cheadle Moseley, Cheadle 
Bulkeley, and Handforth-cum-Bosden ; also an account of the hamlet 
of Gatley, with other parts of the township of Etchells, in the parishes 
of Stockport and Northenden. Manch., 1894. 4to, pp. [x] 209. 

Newbigging (Thomas). History of the Forest of Rossendale. Second 
edition. Rawtenstall: J. J. Riley, 1893. 4to, pp. xix, 369. Illustrated. 
Reviewed in Manchester City News, December and, 1893. 

See also Manch. Monthly. 

Newstead (G. Coulthard). Gleanings towards the Annals of Aughton, 
near Ormskirk. Illustrated by G. Hall Neale and Thomas Medcalf. 
A special chapter on the architecture of the two churches is 
contributed by Thomas Medcalf. Liverpool: C. and H. Ratcliffe, 
1893. sm - 4 to - PP- J 74- 

[Nichols (S.A.).] Darwen and the Cotton Famine. Thirty years ago, 
1862-1864. By the Honorary Secretary of the Local Relief Committee. 
With a brief summary of the operations of the Central Relief Com- 
mittee throughout the cotton district. Darwen : J. J. Riley, 1893. 
i2tno, pp. 100. 

Nicholson (J. H., M.A.). The ancient Presbyterian Chapel at Dean Row, 
Cheshire. L. and C. Antiq. Soc., x. 78-85. 

Nickson (Charles). Widnes Hall. See Philips (N. G.). 

Nightingale (Rev. B.). Lancashire Nonconformity; or, Sketches, His- 
torical and Descriptive, of the Congregational and old Presbyterian 
Churches in the county. Manchester: John Heywood, 1893. 2 vols. 
Vol. v., the Churches of Manchester, Oldham, Ashton, &c. ; vol. vi., 
the Churches of Southport, Liverpool, and the Isle of Man. 

Openshaw (J. T.). The Openshaw Pedigree, together with a portion of 
the Ormerod Pedigree, showing the connection between the two 
families. Bury: A. F. Bentley, Times office, 1893, fol., pp. 21. 

Philips (N. G.). Views of the Old Halls of Lancashire and Cheshire. 
With descriptive letterpress by twenty-four local contributors. Also 
a brief memoir of the artist-engraver, and pedigree of his family. 
London: Henry Gray, 1893. Fol., pp. xii, 121, iv. 

CONTENTS : Memoir of the Artist, by W. Morton Philips ; Speke Hall, by E. W. 
Cox ; Thurland Castle, by W. O. Roper ; Arnside Tower, by Rev. L. R. Ayre ; 
Ordsall Hall, by R. D. Radcliffe ; Hutt in Hale Wood, by J. Paul Rylands ; Dinkley 
Hall, by W. A. Abram ; Little Mitton Hall, by Henry Fishwick ; Garston Hall, 
by J. R. Garstin ; Widnes Hall, by Charles Nickson ; Ince Hall, by Hon. and 
Rev. G. T. O. Bridgeman; Wardley Hall, by William E. A. Axon; Cleworth 
Hall, by W. D. Pink ; Peel or Kenyon Peel Hall, by Nathan Heywood ; Lostock 
Hall, by Joseph Gillow ; Garratt Hall, by Charles W. Sutton ; Hacking Hall, by 
W. A. Abram; Clayton Hall, by Rev. W. H. Burns; Rufford Old Hall, by E. H. 
Holthouse; Turton Tower, by Gilbert J. French; Morleys Hall, by James 
Croston; Crumpsall Hall, by Rev. G. W. Reynolds; Bolton Hall, by Charles 
Madeley; Pile of Fouldray, by John Fell; Holford Hall, Cheshire, by J. P. 

158 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 

Pilkington (Lieut. -Col. John). The early history of the Lancashire 
Family of Pilkington, and its branches, from 1066 to 1600. With 
pedigree, &>c. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., ix. 159-218. 

The history of the Lancashire Family of Pilkington, and its 

branches, from 1066 to 1600 . . . Liverpool: Thomas Brakell Ltd., 
1894. 8vo, pp. xv, 128. Illustrated. 

Enlarged reprint from the Transactions of the Hist. Soc. of Lane, and 

Pink (W. D.). Cleworth Hall. See Philips (N. G.). 

Potter (Chas.). Agricultural and Mechanical Implements found on the 
Meols Shore. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. and viii. 233-244. 

Prior (Matthew). The Goldsmiths' Halls in the Provinces in 1773. 
Reliquary, vol. vii. (new series), pp. 21-27. 

Gives information concerning the Assay Office at Chester. 

Pritt (W. C. Ashby). An account of Wallasey, based on that of Mr. 
Robinson, schoolmaster there, 1720; with notes on the parish, and 
extracts from the registers. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. and viii. 
1-62. Illustrated. 

Pullinger (W.). Architectural features of Astbury Church. L. and C. 
Antiq. Soc., x. 33-45. 

Radcliffe, R. D., M.A.). An old Racing Stable at Wallasey in Wirral. 
Illustrated. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., ix. 141-158. 

See also Earle (T. A.) ; Philips (N. G.). 

Rawnsley (Rev. H. D.). Literary Associations of the English Lakes. 
2 vols. Glasgow: Jas. MacLehose, 1894. i2mo. 

Record Society, 26. The Royalist Composition Papers, being the pro- 
ceedings of the Committee for Compounding, A.D. 1643-1660, so far 
as they relate to the county of Lancaster. Extracted from the 
Records preserved in the Public Record Office, London. Vol. ii., 
C-F. Edited by J. H, Stanning, M.A., 1892 [1894]. 8v . PP- xii - 37- 

27. Lancashire Lay Subsidies, being an examination of the Lay 

Subsidy Rolls remaining in the Public Record Office, London, from 
Henry III. to Charles II. Vol. i., Henry III. to Edward I. (1216-1307). 
Edited by John A. C. Vincent. 1893. 8vo, pp. Ixii, 309. 

28. Minutes of the Committee for the Relief of Plundered 
Ministers, and of the Trustees for the Maintenance of Ministers ; 
relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Part i., 1643-1654. Edited by 
W. A. Shaw, M.A. 1893. 8vo, pp. Ix, 278. 

Renaud (Frank, M.D.). Memorial Brasses of Sir Edward Fitton and 
Dean Robert Sutton in St. Patrick's, Dublin. L. and C. Antiq. Soc., xi. 
34-51. Illustrated . 

See also Crowther (J. S.). 

Reynolds (Rev. G. W.). Crumpsall Hall. Set Philips (N. G.). 

Rimmer (Alfred). Bold Hall. Manch. Guard., May i3th, 1893. 

Bolesworth Castle. Manch. Guard., July 22nd, 1893. 

Calveley Hall and neighbourhood. Manch. Guard., May 27th, 1893. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 159 

Rimmer (Alfred). Garden Hall. Manch. Guard., August i2th, 1893. 

Old St. Mary's Church, Chester. Manch. Guard., July ist, 1893. 

Speke Hall. Manch. Guard., January I4th, 1893. 

Warrington Church. Manch. Guard., February nth, 1893. 

Wrenbury. Manch. Guard., September 3Oth, 1893. 

Robinson (Henry). Set Pritt (W. C. A.). 

Roper (W. O.). See Chetham Society; Philips (N. G.). 

Rossall. Memorial of the Jubilee of Rossall School, June aist, 22nd, 23rd, 

1894. Manchester: Geo. Falkner and Sons, 1894, sm - 4 to . PP- vi "> 

67. Illustrated. 
Rowbotham (G. H.). Notes on Crosses. L. and C. Antiq. Soc., xi. 

118-124. Illustrated. 

Ancient cross at Barton-on-Irwell. 
Rowbotham (John Frederick, M.A.). The History of Rossall School. 

Manchester: John Heywood [1894]. 8vo, pp. x, 447. Illustrated. 

Rylands (J. Paul, F.S.A.). Disclaimers at the Heralds' Visitations. Hist. 
Soc. oj L. and C., n.s., vii. and viii. 63-90. 

Lists of Disclaimers: Lancaster, 1667; Cheshire, 1613, 1664. 

Hutt in Hale Wood. See Philips (N. G.). 

Rylands (W. Harry). Masons' Marks, at Burscough Priory, Ormskirk 
Church, Birkenhead Priory, and some other marks from buildings in 
the counties of Lancashire and Cheshire ; together with notes on the 
general history of Mason's Marks. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. and 
viii. 123-200. Illustrated. 

Salford, County Borough. Royal Museum and Art Gallery, Peel Park. 
Catalogue of loan collection of pictures. Jubilee Exhibition, 1894. 
Salford: W. F. Jackson. 8vo, pp. 132. Illustrated. 

With an account of " Salford, past and present." 
Jubilee. Manch. Guard., April 4th, i4th, 1894. 

Reminiscences of fifty years ago. Manch. City News, April 
i4th, 1894. 
Manorial Records of Salford. Manch. Guardian, September 22nd, 

Sanders (F.). See Wirral Notes and Queries. 

Shaw (William A., M.A.). A Seventeenth Century Bury Inquiry. Bury 
Times, October 28th, 1893. 

Manchester Old and New. With illustrations after original 
drawings by H. E. Tidmarsh. 3 vols. London: Cassell and Co. ,1894. 
4to. Reviewed in Manch. City News, December 29th, 1894; and by H. 
Dunckley in Manch. Guardian, November 2oth, 1894. 

See Record Soc., 28. 

Shrubsole (George W., F.G.S.). Half-an-hour in the Grosvenor Museum, 
Chester. Illustrated Archaeologist, vol. i., pp. 20-31 (June, 1893). Illus- 

160 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 

Shrubsole (George W., F.G.S.) The locality of Great Boughton in the 
time of the Romans. Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc., v., part i., pp. 35-45. 

On the Roman earthenware water-pipes in the Grosvenor Museum. 

Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc., v., part i., pp. 28-34. Illustrated. 

Stanlowe. Inventory of the Goods of the Cell of Stanlowe. 1537. 
Reliquary, vol. vii. (new series), pp. 39-41. 

Stanning (J. H.). See Record Society, 26. 

Stansfield (Abraham). See Manch. Monthly. 

Stonyhurst College, Centenary Jottings. Stony hurst Mag., December, 
1893; July, 1894. 

Strangwayes (Thomas Edward). Materials for a genealogical history of 
the House of Strangwayes, sometime of Strangwayes Hall, in the 
County of Lancaster. Part i. Privately printed, 1894. 4 to ) PP- 8. 

Sutton (Albert). Biliotheca Lancastriensis. A catalogue of books on the 
topography and genealogy of Lancashire. With an appendix of 
Cheshire books. Manchester: Albert Sutton, 1893. 4 to > PP- 89. 

Sutton (C. W.). Garratt Hall. See Philips (N. G.). 

Taylor (Henry, F.S.A.). The Chester City Companies. Chester Arch, and 

Hist. Soc., v., part i., pp. 16-27. 
The Chester City Companies, II. Reliquary, vii. (new series), 

pp. 41-44. 
Thompson (Joseph). Lancashire Independent College, 1843-1893. Jubilee 

Memorial Volume. Manchester: J. E. Cornish, 1893. 8vo, pp. ix, 220. 

Thornely (James L.). The Monumental Brasses of Lancashire and 

Cheshire. With some account of the persons represented. Illustrated 

with engravings from drawings by the author. Hull : William 

Andrews and Co., 1893. 8vo, pp. [v] 322. 
Thompson (Rev. Samuel). History of Rivington [Presbyterian] Chapel. 

Harwich Chronicle, September 22nd, 1894. 
Tidmarsh (H. E.). See Browne (W. T.) and Shaw (W. A.). 
Tim Bobbin, jun. See Manchester Monthly. 
Vincent (John A. C.). See Record Soc., 27. 
Ward (A. W.). See Chetham Society. 
Watts (Augustine, M.A.). Court Rolls of the Manor of Little Crosby, 

A.D. 1628 and 1634. Hist. Soc. of L. and C., n.s., vii. and viii. 103-122. 
Webb (Henry). Bury and Hulme's Charity. Bury: W. S. Barlow and 

Co., 1894. i6mo, pp. 14. 
Whalley Abbey, Inventory of the Goods of, 1537. Reliquary, vol. vii. (new 

series), pp. 34-38. 
Wilkinson (Rav. J. Frome). Mr. Gladstone's Library [St. Deiniol's] . 

Manch. Guard., September 29th, 1894. 
Williams (Frank H.). A Roman Hypocaust. Illustrated. Chester Arch. 

and Hist. Soc.. v., part i., pp. 105-107; Journal of British Arch. Assoc., 

49, 298, 303. Illustrated. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 161 

Wirral Notes and Queries. . . . Edited by F. Sanders, M.A., and W. F. 
Irvine . . . Reprinted, after revision and correction, from the Birken- 
head News. 

Vol. i. January to December, 1892. Principal contents : Wirral Worthies ; 
Bidston Registers; Eastham in 1778; Place Names in Wirral; Presbyterian 
Chapel at Upton. Stanlaw : A forgotten Abbey. 

Vol. ii. January to December, 1893. Principal contents: Wirral Worthies; 
Incumbents of Bidston ; Wallasey Church in 1634 ; Disclaimers at the Heralds' 
Visitations in Wirrall, 1613 and 1664; Flint Implements in Wirral; Wirral 
Deanery in 1592, 1598, and 1605 ; Notes on the Rectors of Thurstaston in 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Yates (G. C.). The Towneleys of Towneley. L. and C. Antiq, Soc., x. 




Vol. 33: John Leland, divine, 1691-1766; Sir Ashton Lever, 1729-1788; 
Thomas Lever or Leaver, puritan divine, 1521-1577; Edward Lewis, 
miscellaneous writer, 1701-1784; John Leycester, miscellaneous writer, 
fl. 1639; Sir Peter Leycester, antiquary, 1614-1678; Theophilus 
Lindsey, Unitarian, 1723-1808; Frederick Lingard, musician, 1811- 
1847; William Linton, landscape-painter, 1791-1876; Thomas Lister, 
alias Butler, Jesuit, 1559-1662?; Sir Joseph Littledale, judge, 1767- 
1842; Sir John Hunter Littler, lieutenant-general, 1783-1856; Henry 
Liverseege, artist, 1803-1832; James Livesey, divine, i625?-i628; 
Joseph Livesey, temperance advocate, 1794-1884. 

Vol. 34: John Lodge, archivist, d. 1774; George Long, classical scholar, 
1800-1879; Maria Theresa Longworth, authoress, i832?-i88i; James 
Lonsdale, portrait-painter, 17771839; Thomas Lowndes, founder of 
the professorship of astronomy in Cambridge, 1692-1748; Samuel 
Jones Loyd, first Baron Overstone, 1796-1883; Louis Arthur Lucas, 
African traveller, 1851-1876; Henry Lushington, chief secretary to the 
government of Malta, 1812-1855; Margaret M'Avoy, blind lady, 1800- 

Vol. 35: Francis Maceroni, aide-de-camp to Murat and mechanical 
inventor, 1788-1846; Matthew Mainwaring, romancist, 1561-1652; Sir 
Philip Mainwaring, secretary for Ireland, 1589-1661 ; Sir Thomas 
Mainwaring, author of the Defence of Amicia, 1623-1689; Thomas 
Mallory or Mallorie, divine, 1605 ?-i666 ? 

Vol. 36: Richmal Mangnall, schoolmistress, 1769-1820; Jeremiah 
Markland, classical scholar, 1693-1776 ; James Heywood Markland, 
antiquary, 1788-1864 ; John Buxton Marsden, historical writer, 1803- 
1870 ; John Howard Marsden, antiquary, 1803-1891 ; George Marsh, 
protestant martyr, 1515-1555 ; John Fitchett Marsh, antiquary, 1818- 

162 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1893 AND 1894. 

1880 ; Thomas Falcon Marshall, artist, 1818-1878 ; Adam Martindale, 
presbyterian divine, 1623-1686 ; Miles Martindale, Wesleyan minister, 
1756-1824; Henry Mason, divine, 1573 ?-i647- 

Vol. 37: Sir Edward Massey, major-general, i6ig?-i674? Nathanael 
Mather, congregationalist divine, 1631-1697; Richard Mather, con- 
gregation alist divine, 1596-1669; Robert Cotton Mather, LL.D., 
missionary, 1808-1877 ' Samuel Mather, congregationalist divine, 
1626-1671; Sir John Mellor, judge, 1809-1887; John Mercer, calico- 
printer and chemist, 1791-1866 ; Sir William Meredith, politician, 
d. 1790; Sir Henry Middleton, merchant and sea-captain, d. 1613. 

Vol. 38: Geffray Minshull or Mynshul, author, 15947-1668; John Edward 
Nassau Molesworth, vicar of Rochdale, 1790-1877 ; William Nassau 
Molesworth, historian, 1816-1890 ; Thomas Molineux, stenographer, 
1759-1850 ; Henry Mollineux, quaker, d. 1719 ; Adam de Molyneux, 
Moleyns, or Molins, bishop of Chichester, d. 1450 ; Sir Richard 
Molyneux, soldier, d. 1459 ; Sir Richard Molyneux, Viscount Mary- 
borough, 1593-1636 ; Samuel Molyneux, astronomer and politician, 
1689-1728 ; William Moorcroft, veterinary surgeon and traveller in 
Central Asia, 1765 7-1825; Sir John Moore, admiral, 1718-1779; 
Sir Jonas Moore, mathematician, 1617-1679. 

Vol. 39: William Moreton, bishop successively of Kildare and Meath, 
1641-1715; Thomas Sutcliffe Mort, pioneer of commerce in New South 
Wales, 1816-1878; Nicholas Mosley, author, 1611-1672; Alexander 
Mosses, artist, 1793-1837; Joseph Mottershead, dissenting minister, 

Vol. 40: Joseph Nadin, deputy-constable of Manchester, 1765-1848; 
Sir John Needham, judge, d. 1480; Robert Needham, classical scholar, 
1680-1731 ; James Neild, philanthropist, 1744-1814 ; Edmund Neville, 
Jesuit, 1605-1647; Edward Neville, vere Scarisbrick, Jesuit, 1639-1709; 
Thomas John Newbold, traveller, 1807-1850; Thomas Newton, poet, 
physician, and divine, 1542 ?-i6o7 ; John Ashton Nicholls, philan- 
thropist, 1823-1859. 

Vol. 41 : Charles Nicholson, flautist and composer, 1795-1837 ; Francis 
Nicholson, theologian, 1650-1731; George Nicholson, artist, 1795?- 
1839? Joseph Nightingale, miscellaneous writer, 1775-1824. 

i6 3 



1893 & 1894. 

CONTRACTIONS. M. F. & P., Manchester Faces and Places; M. W. T., Manchester 
Weekly Times; Cliet. Soc., Chctham Society. 

Alderley Edge M. W. T. '93 
Althorp Library CretUaud 
Andrew (William) Huntington 
Archaeological Finds in Lanca- 
shire Harrison 
Arnside Tower Philips 
Ashton Nonconformist Churches 
Nightingale, Old Hall, .17. F. and 


Assheton Pedigree Howard 
Astbury Church Pullinger 
Aughton Annals Newstead 
Authors, Manchester Grindon 
Baguley Hall M. F. and P. 5 
Barton-on-Irwell, Ancient Cross 

Bayley Family of Manchester 

and Hope E. Axon 
Besses-o'th'-Barn Band Hampson 
Bibliography of L. and C. An- 
tiquities 1892 E. Axon 
Bidston Incumbents Wirral N. 
and Q., Parish of, Irvine, Regis- 
ters, Wirral N. and Q. 
Birkenhead Priory, Masons' Marks 

Ky lands 
Black Death in Lancashire and 

Cheshire Gasqtiet 
Blackburn Characters A brant 
Blackrod Grammar School Hamp- 

Bobbin (Tim) Collier 
Boggart Ho' Clough M. W. T. '93 
Bold Hall Philips, Rimmer 
Bolesworth Castle Rimmer 
Booth Hall M. F. and P. 4 
Boutflower (Dr. John) Huntington 
Bowers (Dean) Huntington 
Bradshaw Hall M . F. and P. 4 
Brasses, Monumental, of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire Thornely 
Brereton (Rich.) Library Axon 
Bright of Liverpool Pedigree 


Bucton Andrew 
Burscough Priory, Masons' Marks 


Bury, A Seventeenth Century 
Inquiry Shaw, and Hulme's 
Charity Webb, Cromptoos He wit- 
so*, in 1814-18 Hewitson, Simnel 

Byrth Pedigree Howard 
Calveley Hall Rimmer 
Capestriorne Hall M. F. and P. 4 
Garden Hall Rimmer 
Carlyle in Manchester Espinasse 
Cartmel Notes Barber 
Cemeteries, Ancient, of Furness 


Charlestown M . F. and P. 4 
Cheadle Chronicles Moss 


Cheeryble Brothers Elliott 

Cheshire and Rebels of '45 Hib- 
bert, Antiquities 1892 E. Axon, 
Books Button, Churches Chet. 
Soc. 32, Early Baptist Pilgrims 
Mortimer, Early Christian Monu- 
ments Allen, Kenyon Manu- 
scripts Kenyan, Masons' Marks 
Rylands, Monumental Brasses 
Thornely, Names Ebblewhite, Old 
Halls Philips, Plundered Minis- 
ters Record Soc. 28, Salt Region 
Baring-Gould, Turnpike Roads 
Harrison, Two Deeds Irvine, 
Visitations, Disclaimers Rylands, 
Wills and Inventories Chet. 
Soc. 28 

Chester Assay Office Prior, Cathe- 
dral Documentary History 
Milne, Cathedral Misericordes 
Hughes, Cathedral School Milne, 
City Companies Taylor, Diocese 
Child-Marriages &c. Early Eng. 
Text Soc. 108, Gild History 
Hibbert, Grosvenor Museum 
Shrubsole, Old St. Mary's 
Church Rimmer, Pemberton's 
Parlour Hughes, Plantagenet 
and Tudor Morris, Roman 
Hypocaust Williams, Sculptures 
of Roman Monuments Cox 

Chetham Hospital Browne, Library 
M. F. and P. 4 and 5 

Child-Marriage of second Viscount 
Molyneux Earle 

Child-Marriages Early Eng. Text 
Soc. 1 08 

Childwall Church, Pewholders in 
1609 Childwall 

Chowbent, Address to the Inhabi- 
tants Leyland 

Church Plate Lancashire 

Churches Cheshire Chet. Soc. 32, 
Lancashire Chet. Soc. 27 

Clay (Dr. C.) Clay 

Clayton Hall Philips 

Cleworth Hall Philips 

Composition Papers, Royalist Re- 
cord Soc. 26 

Cotton Famine and Darwen 

Nichols, Spinning Mortimer 
Court Rolls of Little Crosby Watts 
Crompton (Samuel)Ma;if A .Monthly 
Cromptons of Bury Heu'itson 
Cross Street Chapel Manchester 
Crosses, Notes on Rowbotham 
Crumpsall Hall Philips 
Darcy Lever Old Hall M. F. and 


Darwen and the Cotton Famine 

Dean Row Chapel Nicholson 
Delamere Forest M. W. T. '93 
De Quincey (Thos.) Manch. Monthly 
Deva, Origins of Haverficld 
Didsbury Parish Church M. F. 

and P. 5 

Dinkley Hall Philips 
Disclaimers at the Heralds' Visi- 
tations Rylands 
Dugdale Pedigree Houwd 
Dunham Park M. F. and P. 4 
Earthworks, Ancient, of Furness 


Eastham in 1778 Wirral N . and Q. 
Eshelby Pedigree Howard 
Etchells Moss 
Fitton (Sir E.) Memorial Brass 

Flint Implements in Wirral Wirral 

N. and Q. 

Flints found in Wirral Cox 
Font, Ancient, at Rochdale Fish- 

Fouldrey, Pile of Philips 
Fraser (Bishop James) Huntington 
Frodsham M. W. T. '93 
Furness, Ancient Settlements &c. 

Coivper, Notes Barber 
Galloway (John) Galloway 
Gatley Moss 
Garratt Hall Philips 
Garston Hall Philips 
Gawsworth Manch. Monthly 
Gawthorpe Hall M. F. and P. 5 
Gild History of Chester Hibbert 
Gladstone (W. E.) Library Wil- 


Goldsmiths' Halls Prior 

Grant (William and Daniel) Elliott 

Great Boughton in time of the 

Romans Shrubsole 
Greater Manchester, Old Crofton 
Greville Family E. Axon 
Grosvenor Museum Shrubsole, Ro- 
man earthenware pipes Shrubsole 
Hacking Hall Philips 
Hale Wood, Hutt in Philips 
Hamerton (P. G.) Hamerton 
Handforth Hall M. F. and P. 4, 

M. W. T. '93 

Handforth-cum-Bosden Moss 
Hoghton Tower M. F. and P. 5 
Holford Hall Philips 
Hope, Bayley Family E. Axon 
Hopwood Hall M. F. and P. 5 
Hough End Hall M. F. and P. 4 
Hulme's Charity and Bury Webb 
Ince Hall Philips 
Inventories Lane, and Ches. diet. 

Soc. 28 

Ireland (Alex.) Ireland 
Johnson of Eccleston Pedigree 


Johnson (Minor Canon) Huntington 
Joynson Pedigree Howard 
Kenyon Manuscripts Kenyan 
Lakes, English, Literary Associa- 
tions Rawnsley 

Lancashire Ancient Religious 
Houses Dolan, and Rebels of '45 
Hibbert, Antiquities 1892 E. Axon, 
Archaeological Finds Harrison, 
Border Manch. Monthly, Church 
Plate Lancashire, Churches Chet. 
Soc. 27, Early Christian Monu- 
ments Allen, History Baines, 
History Fishwick, in Early 
Times Manch. Monthly, Inde- 
pendent College M. F. and P. 4, 
Independent College Jubilee 
Thompson, Kenyon Manuscripts 
Kenyon, Lay Subsidies Record 
Soc. 27, Masons' Marks Rylands, 
Ministers Fishwick, Monumental 
Brasses T homely, Nonconformity 
Nightingale 93, North-of-the- 

Sands Archaeological Survey 
Ferguson, Old Halls Philips, 
Plundered Ministers Record Soc. 
28, Royalist Composition Papers 
Record Soc. 26, Topography and 
Genealogy Sutton, Turnpike 
Roads Harrison, Visitations 
Disclaimers Rylands, Wills and 
Inventories Chet. Soc. 28 
Lancaster Church Chet. Soc. 31, 

Unitarian Chapel Hewitson 
Langley (Cardinal) Dean 
Lay Subsidies, Lancashire Record 

Soc. 27 

Leaver (Thos.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 33 
Lee (Bishop Prince) Huntington 
Leland (John) Diet, Nat. Biog. 33 
Lever (Sir Ashton) Diet. Nat. 

Biog. 33 

Lever (Thos.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 33 
Lewes (G. H.) in Manchester 


Lewis (Edward) Diet. Nat. Biog. 33 
Leycester (John) Diet. Nat. Biog. 33 
Leycester (Sir P.) Diet. Nat. 'Biog. 


Lichfield Corvisors and Manches- 
ter Gilds Crofton 
Lindow Common Mortimer 
Lindsey (Theophilus) Diet. Nat. 

Biog. 33 

Lingard (F.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 33 
Linton (W.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 33 
Lister (Thos.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 33 
Literature, Manchester Grindon 
Little Crosby Court Rolls Watts 
Little Mitton Hall M. F. and P. 5 
Little Moreton Hall M. W. T. '93 
Littledale Pedigree Howard 
Littledale (Sir J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Littler (Sir J. H.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Liverseege (H.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 


Livesey (James) Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Livesey (Joseph) Diet. Nat. Biog. 



Liverpool Nonconform. Churches 
Nightingale, Sandemanians in 

Lockett Pedigree Howard 
Lodge (John) Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Long (Geo.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Longworth (Maria T.) Diet. Nat. 

Biog. 34 

Lonsdale (J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Lostock Hall Philips 
Lowndes (T.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Loyd (S. J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Lucas (L. A.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Lushington (H.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 


Lymm M. W. T. '93 
M'Avoy (M.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Macclesfield Pardon Brasses Axon 
Maceroni (F.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 35 
Mainwaring (M.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Mainwaring (Sir P.) Diet. Nat. 

Biog. 35 
Mainwaring (Sir T.) Diet. Nat. 

Biog. 35 

Mallorie (T.) Diet. Nat Biog. 35 
Mallory (T.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 35 
Manchester, Bayley Family E. 
Axon, Cathedral Blomfield, 
Brooke, Crowther, Evans, M. F. 
and P. 5, M. W. T. '93, 
Cathedral, Mosley Brasses Letts, 
Churchwardens, List Evans, 
Court-Leet Records Manch. 
Monthly, Cross Street Chapel 
Bi-centenary Manchester, Enter- 
prises of Corporation Manches- 
ter, Gilds and the Records of 
the Lichfield Corvisors Crofton, 
Literature and Authprs Grindon, 
Nonconformist Churches Night- 
ingale, Old and New Shaw, 
"Old Church" Worthies Hunt- 
ington, Pardon Brasses Axon, 
Press Manch. Monthly, St. Ann's 
Church M. F. and P. 4, St. 
James's Church M. F. and P. 4, 
Ship Canal Manchester, Story of 
Bennett Street School Milner 

Manchester College Oxford Man- 

Mangnall (R.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Markland (J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Markland (J. H.) Diet. NaL Biog. 

Marple Manch. Monthly, Hall M. 

F. and P. 4 

Marsden (J. B.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Marsden (J. H.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Marsh (G.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Marsh (J. F.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Marshall (T. F.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 


Martindale (A.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Martindale (M.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Maryborough (Viscount) Diet. 

Nat. Biog. 36 

Mason (H.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 36 
Masons' Marks in L. and C.Pylands 
Masons' Marks inWirral Churches 


Massey (Sir E.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 37 
Mather (N.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 37 
Mather (R.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 37 
Mather (R. C.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 37 
Mather (S.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 37 
Mellor (Sir J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 37 
Meols Shore, Implements found 


Mercer (J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 37 
Meredith (Sir W.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Middleton (Sir H.) Diet. Nat. 

Biog. 37 
Middleton Church and Cardinal 

Langley Dean 
Ministers, Lancashire, Fishwick, 

Plundered, Relief of, Record Soc. 


Minshull (G.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Misericordes in Chester Cathe- 
dral Hughes 
Mitton Hall Philips 
Mobberley Mallory, Church M. F. 

and P. 5 

Mock Corporation of Sefton Cariie 
Molesworth (J. E. N.) Diet. Nut. 

Biog. 38 


Molesworth (W. N.) Diet. Nat. 

Biog. 38 

Moleyns (A. de) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Molineux (T.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Molins (A. de) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Mollineux (H.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Molyneux Pedigree Howard 
Molyneux (Viscount second) Earle 
Molyneux (A. de) Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Molyneux (Sir R.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 


Molyneux (S.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Monuments, Early Christian, 

Lancashire and Cheshire Allen 
Moorcroft (W.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 | 
Moore (Sir J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Moore (Sir Jonas) Diet. Nat. Biog. 


Moreton (W.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 39 
Morleys Hall M. W. T. 93 
Mort (T. S.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 39 
Mosley Family Brasses Letts 
Mosley (N.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 39 
Mosses (A.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 39 
Mottershead (J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 39 
Mynshul (G.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 38 
Nadin (T-) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 
Needham (Sir J .) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 
Needham (R.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 
Neild (J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 
Neville (E.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 

Newbold (T. J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 
Newton (T.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 
Newton-in-Cartmel, Quaker meet- 
ing-house Mortimer 
Nicholls (J. A.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 40 
Nichols (Humphrey) Huntington 
Nicholson (C.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 41 
Nicholson (F.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 41 
Nicholson (G.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 41 
Nightingale (J.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 41 
Nixon (Robt.) M. W. T. '93 
Nowell (John) Manch. Monthly 
Oldham Nonconformist Churches 


Openshaw Pedigree Openshaw 
Ordsall Hall Philips 
Ormerod Pedigree Openshaw 

Ormskirk Church Masons' Marks 


Overchurch Cox 
Overstone (Baron), see Loyd (S. J.) 

Diet. Nat. Biog. 34 
Overton M. W. T. '93 
Pardon Brasses Manchester and 

Macclesfield Axon 
Parkinson (Canon) Huntington 
Peel or Kenyon Peel Hall Philips 
Pemberton's Parlour Hughes 
Pendle M. W. T. '93 
Percival Pedigree Howard 
Pilkington Family Hampson, Pilk- 

ington, Pedigree Howard 
Pilkington (Geo.) Huntington 
Place Names in Wirral Irvine 
Platt Chapel M. F. and P. 5, 

Church M. F. and P. 4 
Platt-Higgins Pedigree Howard 
Prentice Pedigree Howard 
Quakers, Deserted burying ground 


Racing Stable at Wallasey Radcliffe 
Ramsbottom and the Cheeryble 

Brothers Elliott 

Registers, Bidston W irral N . and Q . 
Religious Houses, Ancient, of 

Lancashire Dolan 
Rivington History Hampson, Pres- 
byterian Chapel Thompson 
Rochdale M. W. T. '93, Ancient 
Font Fishwick, Pioneers, History 
Holyoake, Surnames Fishwick 
Roman Coins at Simonswood 
Hill, Earthenware Pipes Shrub- 
sole, Hypocaust at Chester 
Williams, Monuments, Sculp- 
tures Cox 
Rossall School Beechey, Roivbotham, 

Rossendale History Newbigging, 

Rambles Mather 

Royalist Composition Papers Re- 
cord Soe. 26 

Rudyard Lake M. W. T. '93 
Rufford Old Hall M. F. and P. 5, 

Runic Stone Overchurch Cox 


Rushbearing M . W. T. '94 
Rylands Pedigree Howard 
Salford Ancient Court Records 

Makinson, Congregationalism 

Nightingale, Jubilee Salford, 

Manorial Records Salford 
Samlesbury Hall M. F. and P. 5 
Sandbach M. W. T. '93 
Sandemanians Gibson 
Saxon Cross at West Kirby Cox 
Scarisbrick (E.) Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Sefton descriptive and historical 

account Caroe 
Settlements, Ancient, of Furness 


Simnel, Bury Barlow 
Simonswood, Discovery of Roman 

Coins Hill 

Smith (John Stores) Espinasse 
Smithells Hall M. W. T. '93 
Southport Nonconform. Churches 


Speke Hall Philips, Rimmer 
Staly bridge Mortimer 
Stand Chapel Memorials Herford 
Stanlaw Wirral N. and Q. 
Stanlowe, Cell of, Goods 1537 

Stonyhurst College M. F. and 

P. 5, College Centenary Record 


Strangwayes Family Strangwayes 
Subsidies, Lay, Lancashire Record 

Soc. 27 

Surnames, Rochdale Fishwick 
Sutton (Dean Robert), Memorial 

Brass Renaud 
Tabley Hall M. W. T. '93, Old 

Hall M . F. and P. 5 
Tempest Pedigree Howard 
Thurland Castle Philips 
Thurstaston Rectors Wirral N. 

and Q. 
Tissington MSS. Hibbert 

Tonge Hall Fishwick 
Towneleys of Towneley Yates 
Trafford Hall and Park M. W. 

T. '93 
Tudsberry Turner Pedigree 

Turnpike Roads of L. and C. 

Turton Tower M. F. and P. 4, 


Twenebrokes Family Glazebrook 
Upton Presbyterian Chapel Wirral 

N. and Q. 

Urmston Hall M. F. and P. 4 
Village Communities Crofton 
Visitation of England and Wales 


Wakes M. W. T. '94 
Wallasey, Account Pritt, Church 

in 1634 Wirral N. and Q., 

Racing Stable Radcliffe 
Wardley Hall Philipe 
Warrington Man. Monthly, Church 


Waugh Edwin Espinasse, Milner 
West Kirby Saxon Cross Cox 
Whalley Abbey, Goods 1537 


Widnes Hall Philips 
Wills, Lane, and Ches. Chet. Soc. 

Wirral Churches Marks Cox, 

Deanery Wirral N. and Q., Dis- 
claimers Wirral N. and Q., 

Domesday Survey Irvine, Flints 

found in, Cox, Wirral N . and Q., 

Place Names Irvine, Wirral N. 

and Q., Worthies Wirral N. 

and Q. 

Wolfenden (Jas.) Manch. Monthly 
Wray (Canon) Huntington 
Wrenbury Rimmer 
Wythenshawe Hall M. F. and P. 

4, M. W. T. '93 
Yorkshire Border Manch. Monthly 


THE Council of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian 
Society, in presenting their Twelfth Annual Report, have 
again to record that the work of the Society continues to 
progress steadily. 

PUBLICATION. Volume xi. of the Transactions of the 
Society was issued to members in October last. The 
Council regret the delay in publication, which arose from 
the difficulty in obtaining the illustrations for the volume. 
The complete way in which the principal papers have 
been illustrated will, the Council trust, amply compensate 
the members for the late issue. 

MEMBERSHIP. During the year sixteen new members 
have joined the Society ; ten members have been lost by 
death, resignation, and other causes ; the total number 
of members now on the roll is 322, made up as follows : 

Ordinary Members 272 

Life Members 44 

Honorary Members 6 



WINTER MEETINGS. The monthly meetings of the 
Society, January to April and October to December, 
have been held as usual at the Chetham Library, and 
have been well attended. The titles of the papers and 
short communications are given in the following list : 


Jan. 12. The Round Table. Mr. George Esdaile, C.E. 
,, 12. A Relic of Shakspere. Mr. R.'Langton. 
,, 12. A Jacobean Mortar. Dr. Renaud. F.S.A. 
,, 26. Annual Meeting. 
Feb. 2. The Miserere Carvings at Malpas, Cheshire, and Gresford, 

Denbighshire. Mr. T. Cann Hughes, M.A. 
2. The (so-called) Martyr's Stone at Dean and recent proceedings 

in relation thereto. Major G. J. French. 
2. Reminiscences of Miss Emily Holt. Mr. C. T. Tallent- 

Mar. 2. Warden Heyrick and his Brasses in Manchester Cathedral. 

Rev. E. F. Letts, M.A. 

2. The Pre-Reformation Bell at Bradshaw. Mr. R. Langton. 
,, 2. Fresh Evidence of the Antiquity of Dun ^Engus, Inishmore, 

Galway. Dr. H. Colley March, F.S.A. 

,, 2. On Certain Rock Markings in Galloway. Mr. Alex. Taylor. 
April 6. The Original Contract for Building Oldham Church (1476), 
and other Deeds, &c., relating to Oldham. Mr. J. P. 
Earwaker, M.A., F.S.A. 
,, 6. The Recently Discovered Stone Circles on Chetham's Close. 

Major G. J. French. 

6. Reminiscences of Sandbach. Mrs. G. Linnaeus Banks. 
Oct. 12. Opening Address. Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.S.A. 
12. An Account of the Opening of a Large Tumulus near 

Stonyhurst. Rev. J. R. Luck, S.J. 

,, 12. The Oldest Church in Lancashire. Rev. Monsignor Gradwell. 
Nov. 2. The Churches of the Hambledon Hills, with Illustrations. 

Rev. F. R. C. Hutton. 
2. Copy Nook, Oldham. Mr. S. Andrew. 
Dec. 7. The Plague in Lancashire and Cheshire. Mr. W. E. A. Axon. 


Jan. 10. Ancient Fords, Ferries, and Bridges in Lancashire. Mr. 
W. Harrison. 

The annual soiree, usually held in November or 
December, has this year been postponed till February. 
A special meeting was, however, held at the Manchester 


Town Hall, on November 2gth, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S., presiding. On this occasion a lecture 
was given by the Rev. Dr. Cox, F.S.A., on " English 
Mediaeval Seals," and was illustrated by a series of 
photographs shown on the screen by means of the oxy- 
hydrogen lantern. Interesting specimens of seals and 
matrices were exhibited by Major French, Miss Strong, 
and Mr. G. C. Yates. 

SUMMER MEETINGS were held at the following places : 

May 3. Didsbury. 

June 16. Ince Blundell Hall and Sephton Church. 

July 7. Birkenhead Priory and Bidston Church. 

Aug. 18. Bollington and Rainow. 

Sept. 8. Turton: Ancient Stone Circles on Chetham's Close. 

Oct. 13. Wardley Hall. 

No meeting was held at Whitsuntide. 

has been specially distinguished by the holding of the 
annual congress of the British Archaeological Association, 
which occupied the week commencing on the 3Oth July. 
The necessary arrangements were made by a local execu- 
tive committee, consisting almost entirely of members of 
this Society, and of which Messrs. J. Holme Nicholson 
and Geo. C. Yates acted as honorary local secretaries. 
On the invitation of the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of 
Manchester (Sir Anthony Marshall), who kindly presided 
over the committee, the members of the association and 
their friends met at a conversazione at the Town Hall on 
the evening of the 3oth July. On the 3rd August a 
similar conversazione was held at the Peel Park Museum, 
on the invitation of the Mayor of Salford (Sir William 
Bailey). The day excursions included visits to Chester 
(where the members were entertained at luncheon in the 
Town Hall by Alderman Charles Brown), Whalley, the 


Macclesfield and Congleton district (including Gawsworth, 
Marton, Astbury, and Little Moreton Hall), Nantwich, 
and Blackstone Edge. In the course of these excursions, 
and at the evening meetings, which were held at the 
Owens College, several papers of interest were read. A 
selection of these will be published in the Transactions of 
the Association. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. (a) Archaeological map: 
As mentioned in the last Report of the Council, the 
archaeological survey of Lancashire was completed and 
despatched to London in the autumn of 1893. In due 
course it was communicated to the Society of Antiquaries 
at their meeting on the ist February. A committee of 
that society, appointed with a view to secure uniformity 
of plan in the various county surveys, afterwards resolved 
upon a method differing in several respects from the one 
previously laid down. The draft map and index \vere 
accordingly returned, and, after the necessary alterations 
had been made, were again sent to London. They are 
now in the hands of the printers, and will, it is hoped, be 
published in Arch&ologia at an early date. The Council 
are arranging for members of this Society who may 
desire it to be supplied with copies on terms set forth in 
a circular recently issued. For the execution of this 
section of a great national undertaking we are almost 
entirely indebted to Mr. William Harrison, who has 
bestowed much time and labour on the task. 

(b) The Ecclesiological Committee report that they 
have obtained in reply to their circular returns from a 
considerable number of the clergy of the two counties, 
some of them in a very complete state. From a large 
number of parishes the returns have not been sent in, or 
are too vague and incomplete to be of much use. There 


can be no doubt that the publication by the Chetham 
Society of Sir Stephen Glynne's Notes on Lancashire and 
Cheshire Churches, edited and brought up to date by the 
Rev. Canon Atkinson, has to a large extent forestalled 
the work contemplated by the Committee, and this cir- 
cumstance may also account for the absence of returns 
from many of the parishes. The Committee propose to 
analyse the returns they have received and compare them 
with the publications above mentioned, and they will 
then be in a position to report whether it will be worth 
while to proceed further with the work as at first 

OBITUARY. Joseph Wood died suddenly on 7th Sep- 
tember, 1894, at his residence, 22, Victoria Road, 
Fallowfield, in his sixty-seventh year. He was formerly 
a timber merchant, but retired from business some 
years ago, and was a member of the Withington Local 
Board. He took a keen interest in all antiquarian 
matters, and was a constant attender of the meetings 
and excursions of the Society. 

William Hodgkinson Guest, registrar of the Manchester 
District Registry of the High Court of Justice, died, 
unmarried, in his sixty-sixth year, on the I2th October, 
1894. He was a son of the late Mr. Richard Guest, 
of Leigh, Lancashire, was educated at the Manchester 
Grammar School, and was admitted a solicitor in 1850, 
having served his articles with the late Mr. J. P. 
Aston. He took a keen interest in literature, and, 
besides collecting a large and choice library, was a 
member of various local literary societies. He was on 
the councils of the Manchester Literary Club and 
of the Field Naturalists' Society, one of the auditors of 
the Chetham Society, and an esteemed member of the 


Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. Some 
years ago he was president of the Manchester Law 
Association, and on the occasions of the visits of the Law 
Society to Manchester he was perhaps the most active of 
the local organising committee. He was one of the most 
genial and liberal of men, yet withal one of the most 
modest and retiring, and the amount of good which he did 
by stealth will never be known. 

Charles Lister, registrar of the Manchester County 
Court, and an active justice of the peace for the city, died 
suddenly on Monday, 5th November, at his residence, 
Agden Hall, Lymm, aged fifty-three. Mr. Lister was 
admitted a solicitor in 1864, and in 1876 was appointed 
registrar of the Manchester County Court, at first in 
conjunction with the late Mr. Kay, and on the latter's 
death as sole registrar. Mr. Lister, as a justice, took 
special interest in the question of first offenders. On 
the establishment of county councils Mr. Lister was 
elected for the Lymm division, and he soon became an 
influential member of the Cheshire County Council. He 
leaves a widow and three children. Many members of 
the Society will remember with pleasure the visit to 
Agden Hall, in the year 1886, when Mr. Lister accorded 
them a hearty welcome to that ancient home. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The thanks of the Council are 
cordially given to the Feoffees of Chetham Hospital for 
the use of the meeting-rooms of the Council and the 
Society; to the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of 
Manchester for the use of his parlour for the special 
meeting on the 2gth November; to the Rev. Dr. Cox for 
his interesting lecture on the same date, and to Major 
French, Miss Strong, and Mr. Yates for their exhibits on 
that occasion; to Mr. Weld Blundell for permission to 


visit the hall and inspect the collection of ancient 
marbles at Ince Blundell; to Mr. W. F. Irvine and Mr. 
W. C. Gregson for their able guidance at Ince Blundell 
Hall and Sephton Church, and to Mr. E. W. Cox, of 
Bebbington, for similar assistance at Birkenhead. 

The Council also desire to express their great obliga- 
tions to the ladies and gentlemen, who aided the local 
executive committee in their arrangements for the visit 
of the British Archaeological Association. 

The Council have the satisfaction of again expressing, 
in no less emphatic terms than in previous years, their 
cordial thanks to Mr. C. W. Sutton for his onerous 
services as Editor of the last volume of Transactions; to 
Mr. Yates, the Honorary Secretary, whose long services 
have contributed so much to the success of the Society, 
and to Mr. T. Letherbrow, the Honorary Treasurer, for 
the efficient discharge of his important but irksome 


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Revised January, 1891. 

1. PREAMBLE. This Society is instituted to examine, 
preserve, and illustrate ancient Monuments and Records, 
and to promote the study of History, Literature, Arts, 
Customs, and Traditions, with particular reference to the 
antiquities of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

2. NAME, &c. This Society shall be called the " LANCA- 

3. ELECTION OF MEMBERS. Candidates for admission to 
the Society must be proposed by one member of the Society, 
and seconded by another. Applications for admission must 
be submitted in writing to the Council, who shall report 
to the next ordinary meeting the names of such candidates. 
At the next ordinary meeting thereafter following, the names 
of all the candidates so reported shall be put to the meeting 
for election as the first business following the reading and 
confirmation, or otherwise, of the minutes of the preceding 
meeting, and the election shall be determined by common 
assent or dissent, unless a ballot shall be called for in the 
case of any one or more of the candidates by any member 
then present. In case of ballot, one black ball in five shall 
exclude. During the period of the year when the ordinary 
meetings are suspended, the Council shall have power to 
invite to general meetings any candidate whom they have 

i8o RULES. 

resolved to recommend for election at the next ordinary 
meeting. Each new member shall have his election notified 
to him by the Honorary Secretary, and shall at the same 
time be furnished with a copy of the Rules, and be required 
to remit to the Treasurer, within two months after such 
notification, his entrance fee and subscription; and if the 
same shall be thereafter unpaid for more than two months, 
his name may be struck off the list of members unless he can 
justify the delay to the satisfaction of the Council. No new 
member shall participate in any of the advantages of the 
Society until he has paid his entrance fee and subscription. 
Each member shall be entitled to admission to all meetings 
of the Society, and to introduce a visitor, provided that the 
same person be not introduced to two ordinary or general 
meetings in the same year. Each member shall receive, free 
of charge, such ordinary publications of the Society as shall 
have been issued since the commencement of the year in 
which he shall have been elected, provided that he shall have 
paid all subscriptions then due from him. The Council shall 
have power to remove any name from the list of members on 
due cause being shown to them. Members wishing to resign 
at the termination of the year can do so by informing the 
Honorary Secretary, in writing, of their intention on or before 
the 30th day of November, in that year. 

4. HONORARY MEMBERS. The Council shall have the 
power of reccommending persons for election as honorary 

have power to appoint any person Honorary Local Secretary 
whether he be a member or not, for the town or district 
wherein he may reside, in order to facilitate the collection of 
accurate information as to objects and discoveries of local 

6. SUBSCRIPTIONS. An annual subscription of ten shillings 
and sixpence shall be paid by each member. All such sub- 
scriptions shall be due in advance on the first day of January. 

RULES. 181 

7. ENTRANCE FEE. Each person on election shall pay an 
entrance fee of one guinea in addition to his first year's 

8. LIFE MEMBERSHIP. A payment of seven guineas shall 
constitute the composition for life membership, including the 
entrance fee. 

9. GOVERNMENT. The affairs of the Society shall be 
conducted by a Council, consisting of the President of the 
Society, not more than six Vice- Presidents, the Honorary 
Secretary, and Treasurer, and fifteen members elected out of 
the general body of the members. The Council shall retire 
annually, but the members of it shall be eligible for 
re-election. Any intermediate vacancy by death or retire- 
ment may be filled up by the Council. Four members of 
the Council to constitute a quorum. The Council shall meet 
at least four times yearly. A meeting may at any time 
be convened by the Honorary Secretary by direction of 
the President, or on the requisition of four members of the 
Council. Two Auditors shall be appointed by the members 
at the ordinary meeting next preceding the final meeting of 
the Session. 

AUDITORS. The Honorary Secretary shall send out notices 
convening the annual meeting, and with such notices enclose 
blank nomination papers of members to fill the vacancies in 
the Council and Officers, other than the Auditor. The said 
notice and nomination paper to be sent to each member 
twenty-one days prior to the annual meeting. The nomina- 
tion paper shall be returned to the Secretary not less 
than seven days before the annual meeting, such paper 
being signed by the proposer and seconder. Should such 
nominatious not be sufficient to fill the several offices 
becoming vacant, the Council shall nominate members to 
supply the remaining vacancies. A complete list shall be 
printed, and in case of a contest such list shall be used as a 
ballot paper. 

182 RULES. 

11. SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. The Council may from time 
to time appoint Sectional Committees, consisting of members 
of their own body and of such other members of the Society 
as they may think can, from their special knowledge, afford 
aid in such branches of archaeology as the following: 
Pre-historic Remains. 2. British and Roman Antiquities. 
3. Mediaeval, Architectural, and other Remains. 4. Ancient 
Manners and Customs, Folk-Lore, History of Local Trades 
and Commerce. 5. Records, Deeds, and other MSS. 
6. Numismatics. 7. Genealogy, Family History, and 
Heraldry. 8. Local Bibliography and Authorship. 

12. DUTIES OF OFFICERS. The duty of the President 
shall be to preside at the meetings of the Society, and to 
maintain order. His decision on all questions of precedence 
among speakers, and on all disputes which may arise during 
the meeting, to be absolute. In the absence of the President 
or Vice-Presidents, it shall be competent for the members 
present to elect a chairman. The Treasurer shall take 
charge of all moneys belonging to the Society, pay all 
accounts passed by the Council, and submit his accounts and 
books, duly audited, to the annual meeting, the same having 
been submitted to the meeting of the Council immediately 
preceding such annual meeting. The duties of the Honorary 
Secretary shall be to attend all meetings of the Council and 
Society, enter in detail, as far as practicable, the proceedings 
at each meeting, to conduct the correspondence, preserve all 
letters received, and convene all meetings by circular, if 
requisite. He shall also prepare and present to the Council 
a Report of the year's work, and, after confirmation by the 
Council, shall read the same to the members at the annual 

13. ANNUAL MEETING. The annual meeting of the Society 
shall be held in the last week of January. 

14. ORDINARY MEETINGS. Ordinary meetings shall t be 
held in Manchester at 6-15 p.m., on the first Friday of each 
month, from October to April, for the reading of papers, the 

RULES. 183 

exhibition of objects of antiquity, and the discussion of 
subjects connected therewith. 

15. GENERAL MEETINGS. The Council may, from time to 
time, convene general meetings at different places rendered 
interesting by their antiquities, architecture, or historic 
associations. The work of these meetings shall include 
papers, addresses, exhibitions, excavations, and any other 
practicable means shall be adopted for the elucidation of the 
history and antiquities of the locality visited. 

from time to time, make grants of money towards the cost of 
excavating and exploring, and for the general objects of the 

17. PUBLICATIONS. Original papers and ancient docu- 
ments communicated to the Society may be published in such 
manner as the Council shall from time to time determine. 
Back volumes of the Transactions and other publications of 
the Society remaining in stock may be purchased by any 
member of the Society at such prices as the Council shall 

1 8. PROPERTY. The property of the Society shall be vested 
in the names of three Trustees to be chosen by the Council. 

19. INTERPRETATION CLAUSE. In these Rules the mascu- 
line shall include the feminine gender. 

20. ALTERATION OF RULES. These Rules shall not be 
altered except by a majority of not less than two-thirds of 
the members present and voting at the annual or at a special 
meeting convened for that purpose. Fourteen days' notice of 
such intended alteration is to be given to every member of 
the Society. 


Date of Election. 
December yth, 1888 

September 4th, 1883 
March aist, 1883 
June iyth, 1884 

November 4th, 1892 
September 4th, 1883 

June nth, 1886 
July 25th, 1885 
July 25th, 1885 
September 4th, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 

October 8th, 1886 
March 2ist, 1883 
April 1 5th, 1885 

December, 4th, 1885 

April i4th, 1885 
November 5th 1886 
October i2th, 1888 
March 2ist, 1883 

The * denotes a Life Member. 

The t denotes an Honorary Member. 

Abraham, Miss E. C., Grassendale Park, near 


Adshead, G. H., Fern Villas, Pendleton 
Agnew, W., J.P., Summerhill, Pendleton 
Ainsworth, Mrs. Frank, Lostock Dene, Lostock, 


Albiston, Miss, Mount Heaton, Heaton Mersey 
Allen, Rev. Geo., M.A., Shaw, Oldham 
Andrew, Frank, J.P., Chester Square, Ashton- 


Andrew, J. D., Town Hall, Ardwick 
Andrew, James, The Avenue, Patricroft 
Andrew, James Lawton, M.D., Heaton Norris 
Andrew, Samuel, St. John's Terrace, Hey Lees, 

Anson, Ven. Archdeacon G. H. G., M.A., Birch 

Rectory, Rusholme 

Arning, C. H., West View, Victoria Park 
Arnold, W. T., M.A., 75, Nelson Street, Manchester 
*Ashworth, Edmond, J.P., Egerton Hall, Bolton-le- 

Ashworth, Joseph, Albion Place, Walmersley Road, 


Atkinson, Rev. Canon, B.D., Bolton 
Attkins, Edgar, 57, Camp Street, Broughton 
Axon, Ernest, Free Reference Library, Manchester 
Axon, W. E. A., M.R.S.L., 47, Derby Street, Moss 


March 5th, 1886 Bagshaw, Thomas, Eccles New Road, Salford 

March 2ist, 1883 *Bailey, Sir W. H., Sale Hall, Cheshire 



March 2ist, 1883 
October loth, 1890 
November 3rd, 1893 

February 7th, 1890 
January nth, 1884 

June i3th, 1885 
March 2ist, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 
April 1 4th, 1885 
January yth, 1887 
January yth, 1887 
July 30th, 1885 

June 26th, 1883 
December ist, 1893 
January 8th, 1892 
October 7th, 1892 

January 29th, 1885 

December 7th, 1883 
July 3ist, 1886 
March yth, 1890 

September 4th, 1883 
June 26th, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 

November 5th, 1886 
May yth 1885 

October 7th, 1887 
September 28th, 1883 

March, 2ist, 1883 
October loth, 1890 
March 5th, 1886 

September 26th, 1889 
December 2nd, 1887 
November 6th, 1892 

Baillie, Edmund J., F.L.S., Chester 
Ball, William, Blackfriars Street, Manchester 
fBanks, Mrs. G. Linnaeus, 34, Fassett Square, 

Dalston, London 

Barber, Robert, Winnats Knoll, Prestwich 
Barlow, John Robert, Greenthorne, Edgworth, 


Barlow, Miss Annie E. F., Greenthorne, Bolton 
Barraclough, Thomas, C.E., 20, Bucklersbury, 


Bateman, C. T. Tallent, Cromwell Road, Stretford 
Baugh, Joseph, Edendale, Whalley Range 
Baugh, Mrs., Edendale, Whalley Range 
*Bayley, Rev. C. J., M.A., Ambleside 
Bay ley, Charles W., 5, Polygon, Eccles 
Baynes, Fred., Samlsbury Hall, Preston 
Baynton, Alfred, Stamford Villas, Heaton Chapel 
Beaumont, Jas. W., Fulshaw, Wilmslow 
Beckett, J. M., Newstead, Buxton 
Bellamy, C. H., F.R.G.S., Belmont, Brook Road, 

Heaton Chapel 
Berry, Charles F. Walton, 153, Moss Lane East, 

Moss Side 

Berry, James, Mayfield, Grimsargh, Preston 
Booth, James, The Avenue, Patricroft 
Bowden, Daniel, The Grove, Oldfield Road, 


Bowden, William, Gorsefield, Patricroft 
Bradsell, B. J. T., 12, Oswald Street, Hulme 
Bridgen, Thomas Edward, Oaklynne, Fallowfield 


Brimelow, William, 153, Park Road, Bolton 
*Brockholes, W. Fitzherbert, J.P., Claughton Hall, 

Claughton-on-Brock, Garstang 
Brooke, Alexander, Muswell Hill Road, Highgate 
Brooke, John, A. R. I.E. A., 18, Exchange Street, 

Brooks, Sir William Cunliffe, Bart., F.S.A., 

Barlow Hall, Manchester 

fBrowne, Walter T., Chetham Hospital, Man- 
Buckley, George F., Linfitts House, Delph, 


Burgess, John, Shaftsbury House, Cheadle Hulme 
*Butcher, S. F., Bury 
Bourke, Walter L., Worsley Old Hall 

March 2ist, 1883 Carington, H. H. Smith, Stanley Grove, Oxford 

May 2nd, 1885 Carr William, The Hollies, Newton Heath 



October 8th, 1886 

January 23rd, 1893 
March 2ist, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 
June nth, 1886 
March 2nd, 1894 
December 3rd, 1886 

January nth, 1884 

December ist, 1893 
March 2ist, 1883 

November yth, 1884 
January yth, 1887 
March 2 ist, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 

October 8th,' 1886 
October loth, 1890 

October yth, 1887 
March 2ist, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 

September 28th, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 
April ist, 1887 

September 26th, 1889 
November 2nd, 1883 
September 26th, 1889 
March 2 ist, 1883 

May 4th, 1883 
January i5th, 1886 

*Chesson, Rev. William H., Alnwick, Northum- 

Chorlton, Jno. Clayton, The Priory, Didsbury 
Christie, Richard Copley, M.A., Ribsden, Bagshot, 


Churchill, W. S., 24, Birch Lane, Manchester 
Clarke, Dr. W. H., Park Green, Macclesfield 
Claye, Herbert S., 259, Park Lane, Macclesfield 
*Collier, Edward, i, Heather Bank, Moss Lane 

Collmann, Charles, Elmhurst, Ellesmere Park, 


Cooper, Thos., Mossley House, Congleton 
Copinger, W. A., LL.D., F.S.A., The Priory, 


Cowell, P., Free Library, Liverpool 
Cox, George F., 26, Cathedral Yard, Manchester 
fCrawford and Balcarres, The Right Hon. the 

Earl of, F.R.S., F.S.A., F.R.A.S., Haigh Hall, 


Creeke, Major A. B., Westwood, Burnley 
Crofton, Rev. Addison, M.A., Linton, Settle, Yorks. 
Crofton, H. T., Manor House, Wilmslow Road, 


*Crompton, Alfred, jun., Dunsters, Bury 
Cunliffe, William, West Bank, Gilnow Park, 

Curnick, H. D., Glendale, Alderley Edge 

Darbishire, R. D., B.A., F.S.A., Victoria Park, 

Darbyshire, Alfred, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., Brazenose 

Street, Manchester 

*Dauntesey, Robert, Agecroft Hall, Manchester 
Dawkins, Professor William Boyd, F.R.S., F.S.A., 

Woodhurst, Fallowfield 
Dawkins, Mrs., Woodhurst, Fallowfield 
De Trafford, Sir Humphrey F., Bart., Trafford 

Park, Manchester 

Dean, John, 31, Market Place, Middleton 
Dearden, J. Griffith, Walcot Hall, Stamford 
Dehn, Rudolph, Olga Villa, Victoria Park 
'Devonshire, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.S.A., Devonshire House, Piccadilly, 

Doody, C. C., Cannon Street, Manchester 

Duncan, James, M.B., 24, Richmond Street, 




March aist, 1883 

October 8th, 1886 
January 2gth, 1885 
November 3rd, 1893 
March 2ist, 1883 

January 8th, 1892 
June nth, 1886 
March 2ist, 1883 
December i6th, 1889 
March 2ist, 1883 

Earwaker, J.P., M.A., F.S.A., Pensarn, Abergele 


* East wood, J. A., 49, Princess Street, Manchester 
Ecroyd, William, Spring Cottage, Burnley 
Edelsten, Jno. A., 31, Bold Street, Warrington 
*Egerton of Tatton, Right Hon. the Lord, F.S.A., 

Tatton Park, Knutsford 
Elgood, Jno. G., Swiss Cottage, Langham Road, 

Bowdon (deceased) 
*Ermen, Henry E., Rose Bank, Bolton Road, 

Esdaile, George, C.E.,' The Old Rectory, Platt 

Lane, Rusholme 
Estcourt, Charles, F.C.S., 20, Albert Square, 


*Evans, Sir John, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., 
Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead 

May 4th, 1883 
December 7th, 1895 

December 5th, 1884 
March 2ist, 1883 

July 3ist, 1886 
February 6th, 1885 
June i3th, 1885 
June i3th, 1885 
December gth, 1886 

Faithwaite, J. R., Manchester and Salford Bank, 

Mosley Street 

Faulkner, Robert, Elian Brook, Brooklands 
Fearnhead, Joseph, i, Crysus Street, Bolton 
Finney, James, Solicitor, Bolton 
Fishwick, Lieut. -Col. Henry, F.S.A., The Height, 


Freeman, R. Knill, East View, Haulgh, Bolton 
French, Gilbert J., Thornydikes, Bolton 
French, Mrs., Bolton 

French, Miss K., 36, Part Street, Southport 
"Frost, Robert, B.Sc., Bright Side, Altrincham 

May 4th, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 
December 2nd, 1887 

May 4th, 1883 
December 7th, 1895 

May 7th, 1885 

January nth, 1884 
September i8th, 1885 
April 2nd, 1886 
July 25th, 1885 

June nth, 1886 

Gadd, Very Rev. Monsignor, St. Chad's, Man- 

Gill, Richard, 12, Tib Lane, Cross Street, Man- 

Gillibrand, W., M.R.C.S., Parkfield House, 
Chorley Road, Bolton 

Goodyear, Charles, 39, Lincroft Street, Moss Side 

Gore, Rev. G. Perry, M.A., Vicar of St. Mary's, 

Gradwell, Very Rev. Mgr., Claughton-on-Brock, 

Grafton, Miss, Heysham Hall, Lancaster 

Greenhough, R., jun., Church Street, Leigh 
*Grimshaw, William, Sale 

*Guest, William H., 57, King Street, Manchester 

Giiterbock, Alfred, Newington, Bowdon 



March 2ist, 1883 
November yth, 1884 
March 2ist, 1883 
October ioth, 1890 
November 6th, 1892 
October 8th, 1886 
December 5th, 1890 
December 2ist, 1892 
September 2nd, 1889 

November 2nd, 1888 
February 6th, 1885 

March 3ist, 1885 

March 2ist, 1883 
June i3th, 1885 
December yth, 1883 
October ioth, 1890 
March 2ist, 1883 
October yth, 1892 
October yth, 1892 
June nth, 1886 

September 4th, 1883 

December 6th, 1889 
March 2ist, 1883 
June lyth, 1884 

October 8th, 1886 
January 26th, 1894 
December yth, 1888 

January nth, 1884 
March yth, 1884 

March 2ist, 1883 

February ist, 1895 

March 4th, 1887 
March 2ist, 1883 
December 2nd, 1887 

Hadfield, E., Barr Hill, Pendleton 
Hall, James, Edale, Broad Road, Sale 
Hall, Major G. W., Town Hall, Salford 
Hall, Oscar S., The Derbys, Bury 
Hamilton, Thomas, The Elms, Altrincham 
Hand, Thomas W., Free Library, Oldham 
Hanson, George, Free Library, Rochdale 
Hardcastle, Thomas, Bradshaw Hall, Bolton 
Harker, Robert B., Carr End, Navigation Road, 


Harper, Jno., 25, Victoria Road, Fallowfield 
Harrison, William, 112, Lansdowne Road, Dids- 

*Hawkesbury, Right Hon. the Lord, F.S.A., 

Cockglode, Ollerton, Newark 
Haworth, S. E., Worsley Road, Swinton 
Heape, Charles, Glebe House, Rochdale 
Heape, Joseph R., Rochdale 
Heape, Robert Taylor, Halfacre, Rochdale 
Hearle, Rev. G. W., M.A., Newburgh, Wigan 
Henderson, Alfred, Brackley Villas, Moses Gate 
Henderson, Geo., 18, Nelson Square, Bolton 
Herford, Rev. P. M., M.A., The Rectory, Trinity 

Road, Edinburgh 
Hewitson, Anthony, Holmleigh, Moorlands Road, 


Hey wood, Rev. Canon H. R., Swinton (deceased) 
Heywood, Nathan, 3, Mount Street, Manchester 
Hodgson, Edwin, 4, Worsley Grove, Stockport 

Road, Levenshulme 

*Holden, Arthur T., Waterfoot, Heaton, Bolton 
Hope, Thomas Hoyle, The Laburnums, Atherton 
Hornby, Miss Clara, 21, Osborne Terrace, Hale 

Road, Bowdon 

"Houldsworth, Sir W. H., M.P., Knutsford 
Howorth, Daniel F., F.S.A. Scot., Graf ton Place, 

Howorth, Sir Henry H., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

30, Collingham Place, Cromwell Road, London, 

Hudson, Rev. H. A., Heywood Street, Cheetham 


Hughes, T. Cann, M.A., Town Hall, Manchester 
Hulton, W. W. B., J.P., Hulton Park, Bolton 
Hutton, Rev. F. R. C. ( 28, Chorley New Road, 


November 3rd, 1893 
June nth, 1886 

Isherwood, Miss Marion P. 

Ives, Miss, 77, Adswood Lane, Stockport 



November 5th, 1886 
December yth, 1894 
September 26th, 1889 

May 4th, 1883 
April nth, 1890 
September 28th, 1883 
May 2nd, 1885 
January 2ist, 1886 
March 4th, 1887 

Jackson, Miss E. S., Burnside, Calder Vale, Gar- 

Jackson, Francis M., The Red House, Alderley 

Jackson, Jno. R., 35, Claremont Road, Alexandra 


Jackson, S., Burnside, Calder Vale, Garstang 
Johnson, David, Albion House, Old Trafford 
Johnson, J. H., F.G.S., 73, Albert Road, Southport 
* Johnson, William, 91, Hulton Street, Moss Side 
Johnson, Mrs., 91, Hulton Street, Moss Side 
Johnstone, Rev. Thomas Boston, M.A., 116, Chorley 

New Road, Bolton 

March 2ist, 1883 Kay, J. Taylor, South View, Platt Lane, Rusholme 

May 2nd, 1885 Kay, James, Lark Hill, Timperley 

June nth, 1886 *Kay, Thomas, J.P., Moorfield, Stockport 

October zoth, 1890 *Kirkham, William H., Hanmer Lea, Heaton Moor 
March 2ist, 1883 Kirkman, William Wright, 8, John Dalton Street, 


January 26th, 1894 Knott, J. R., 103, Union Street, Oldham 
January loth, 1890 Kynnersley, Thomas Frederick, Leighton Hall, 

Ironbridge, Salop 

March 7th, 1890 
March 2ist, 1883 
October i2th, 1888 

March 2ist, 1883 

July 1 8th, 1885 
January 3ist, 1890 
March 2ist, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 
December 7th, 1883 
April 26th, 1889 
May 4th, 1883 
December 4th, 1885 
March 2ist, 1883 

June nth, 1886 
December 7th, 1888 
November 4th, 1892 
March 7th, 1890 
March 2ist, 1883 
January nth, 1889 

Lancaster, Alfred, Free Library, St. Helens 
Langton, Robert, F.R.H.S., Bexley, Kent 
Larmuth, George H., F.S.I., The Grange, Hand- 
*Lathom, Right Hon. the Earl of, 41, Portland 

Place, W. 

Lawton, Mrs., Stamford Villa, Altrincham 
Laycock, Joseph, Brown Street, Manchester 
Leech, Professor D. J., M.D., F.R.C.P., Elm 

House, Whalley Range 
Leech, Mrs., Elm House, Whalley Range 
Leech, Miss M. L., Reede House, Flixton 
*Lees, John W., Greengate, Chadderton, Oldham 
Lees, William, Egerton Villa, Heywood 
Letherbrow, Thomas, Alderley Edge 
Letts, Rev. E. F., M.A., The Rectory, Newton 


*Lever, Ellis 

Little, Rev. C. E., Oldham 

Lobenhoffer, Prof. Carl, Sunny Bank, Wilmslow 
Lomax, Rev. John, M.A., Cheetham Hill 
Lord, H., 42, John Dalton Street, Manchester 
Lowe, Rev. Charles, St. John's Rectory, Cheetham 

i go 


September 4th, 1883 
March 3rd, 1893 

August i5th, 1885 
March 2ist, 1883 

May 20th, 1885 
March 2ist, 1883 

November 5th, 1886 

September 26th, 1889 

March 2ist, 1883 
January loth, 1890 
October loth, 1890 

March 2ist, 1883 
March aist, 1883 
January 8th, 1892 

January 27th, 1893 
October 7th, 1887 
November 4th, 1892 
March 2ist, 1883 
June 26th, 1883 
September 26th, i88c 
September 4th, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 
January 26th, 1894 
January 26th, 1894 
March 2ist, 1883 

January 3ist, 1890 
October loth, 1890 
April i6th, 1886 
April 2nd, 1886 

March 2ist, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 

"Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., M.P., F.S.A., 15, 
Lombard Street, London 

Maclure, Very Rev. E. C., D.D., The Deanery, 


Magsen, John, 15, Watling Street, Manchester 
*Makinson, W. G., Montrose Villa, Ashton-on- 

March, H. Colley, M.D., F.S.A., 2, West Street, 


March, Mrs., 2, West Street, Rochdale 
Martin, William Young, M.D., J.P., The Limes, 

Walkden, Bolton 
Massey, Arthur W., 27, Ackers Street, Chorlton- 

Mayer, Charles, Architect, John Dalton Street, 

Milne, James D., Lomond Ville, Chorlton-cum- 


Milner, George, J.P., 59, Mosley Street, Manchester 
Moeller, Victor, Derby Road, Fallowfield 
Molyneux, Colonel, J.P., F.R.H.S., Warren Lodge. 

Wokingham, Berks. 

Moorhouse, Frederick, Kingston Mount, Didsbury 
Morris, Claude J., The Mount, Altrincham 
Moss, Fletcher, Old Parsonage, Didsbury 

Naylor, James, 15, Queen's Road, Didsbury 
Neal, Thos. Dale, Wilmslow 
*Neville, Charles, Bramhall Hall, Stockport 
Newman, Thos., Atkinson Free Library, Southport 
Newton, Miss, Holly House, Flixton 
Newton, C. E., Timperley Lane, Altrincham 
Newton, The Lord, Lyme Park, Disley 
Nicholson, Albert, The Old Manor House, Sale 
Nicholson, J. Holme, M.A., Whitefield, Wilmslow 
Norbury, Jonathan, Ramsey, Isle of Man 
Norbury, Mrs., Ramsey, Isle of Man 
Norbury, William, Rotherwood, Wilmslow 

Ormerod, Ben., Sandewood, Pendlebury 
Ormerod, J. P., Castleton, near Manchester 
Ormerod, Thomas P., Castleton, Manchester 
fOwen, John, 448, Hempshaw Lane, Stockport 
*Owen, Major-General C. H., R.A., Alton Lodge, 

Hartley Wintney, Winchfield, Hants 
Oxley, H. M., Deansgate, Manchester 
Oxley, Thomas, Helme House, Ellesmere Park, 



April 26th, 1889 

July 26th, 1884 
January nth, 1895 
January 26th, 1894 
November 3rd, 1893 
March 2ist, 1883 
October 8th, 1886 
September 26th, 1889 

January 27th, 1893 

May 4th, 1883 
October 8th, 1886 
March 2ist, 1883 

July 25th, 1885 
April 7th, 1893 
March 5th, 1886 
October 7th, 1887 

April 2nd, 1886 
December 7th, 1888 
April i4th, 1885 

October i7th, 1884 
March 2ist, 1883 

May 4th, 1883 

December 7th, 1883 
September 29th, 1884 

November i3th, 1890 
December 22nd, 1884 
May and, 1885 
September 4th, 1883 

December 2ist, 1892 
November 3rd, 1893 
February 4th, 1887 

July 26th, 1884 
May 4th, 1883 

Oxley, Mrs., Helme House, Ellesmere Park, 

Paley, E. G., F.R.I.B.A., Lancaster (deceased) 
Parker, John, Springfield Lane Oil Works, Salford 
Parker, Thos., 45, Lower Mosley Street, Manchester 
Patterson, Rev. H. S., M.A., Vicar of Dean 
Pearson, George, Southside, Wilmslow 
Pearson, Henry, Union Bank, Salford 
Pearson, Joseph, Marlborough Terrace, Windsor 

Bridge, Salford 
Pearson, Mrs., Marlborough Terrace, Windsor 

Bridge, Salford 

Peel, Robert, Fulshaw Avenue, Wilmslow 
Pike, C. F., Bella Vista, Lostock Road, Urmston 
Pocklington, Rev. J. N., M.A., Owen House, 


Posnett, W. A., Park View, Chorley, Lancashire 
Postlethwaite, G., B.A., Grammar School 
Potter, Robert Cecil, Heald Grove, Rusholme 
Pullinger, William, Ash Lea, Sandy Lane, Romiley 

Radford, W. Harold, The Haven, Whalley Range 
Redford, Walter J., Spring Place, Great Lever 
Redhead, R. Milne, F.L.S., Holden Clough, 

Bolton-by-Bowland, Clitheroe 
Reid, David, Bower Bank, Bowdon 
Renaud, Frank, M.D., F.S.A., Hillside, Alderley 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., M.A., Elwick Hall, Castle 

Eden, Durham 

Rigg, George Wilson, Police Street, Manchester 
Rimmer, John H., M.A., LL.M., Madeley, New- 
castle, Staff. 
Rivers, General Pitt, F.R.S., F.S.A., Rushmore, 

Robinow, Max, Hawthornden House, Palatine 

Road, Didsbury 
*Robinson, J. B., F.R.M.S., Devonshire House, 

Robinson, John, Victoria House, Albert Street, 


Robinson, Captain Marshall, The Park, Sharpies 
Robinson, W. H., 75, Bridge Street, Manchester 
Roeder, Charles, Emsee Cottage, Amhurst Street, 

Derby Road, Fallowfield 
* Roper, W. O., Lancaster 
Rowbotham, G. H., Manchester and Salford Bank 


I 9 2 


April 22nd, 1884 
March 2ist, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 

May 4th, 1883 
April i4th, 1885 

January 26th, 1894 
October gth, 1885 
June 26th, 1883 
November 3rd, 1893 
January 2oth, 1893 
March 2ist, 1883 
November yth, 1884 

September 28th, 1894 

November i8th, 1884 
March 2ist, 1883 
March yth, 1884 

May 22nd, 1866 

October 8th, 1886 
June nth, 1886 
October yth, 1887 
January nth, 1889 
April 5th, 1889 
October yth, 1887 

March 2ist, 1883 
March 2ist, 1883 

July 26th, 1884 
October loth, 1890 
March 2ist, 1883 

October i2th, 1894 

January 8th, 1892 
April 2nd, 1886 

October i2th, 1888 
November yth, 1884 

Rudd, John, Sale Road, Northenden 
Russell, Rev. E. J., M.A., Todmorden 
*Rylands, Thomas G., F.S.A., Highfield, Thelwall, 

Sandbach, J. E., Wilbraham Road, Chorlton-cum- 

*Schwabe, Charles, The Orchards, Ashton-upon- 


Scott, Arthur R., St. John's Avenue, Longsight 
Scott, E. D., Greenbank, Ashton-upon-Mersey 
Scott, Fred, 33, Brazenose Street, Manchester 
Sever, W. M., Fern Bank, Con way 
Seville, Richard Taylor, Carrhill Road, Mossley 
Shaw, Giles, y2, Manchester Street, Oldham 
Shaw, James, 95, Brookshaw Terrace, Walmersley 

Road, Bury 
Sheldon, Norman, 12, St. Paul's Road, Kersal, 


Sherriff, Herbert, Dean's Villa, Swinton 
Smith, C. C., Lime Hurst, Knowle, Warwick 
Smith, David, J.P., Highfield, Schools Hill, 

Smith, Fredk. Ford, Harrington Road, Dunham 

Massey (deceased) 

Smith, Thomas E., 189, St. George's Road, Bolton 
Smith, William Ford, Woodstock, Didsbury 
Smith, William, M.D., Eccles 
Smith, Wm. Jas., yi, Lord Street, Leigh 
Smithies, Hariy, 21, Rectory Road, Crumpsall 
Southam, George Armitage, Claremont Cottage, 

Irlams-o'th'-Height, Manchester 
Standring, Alfred, LL.M., M.A., Dunwood Hall, 

near Endon, Stoke-on-Trent 
Stanning, Rev. J. H., M.A., Leigh Vicarage, 


* Storey, Herbert L., Lancaster 
Sutcliffe, Jno., 28, Duke Street, Southport 
fSutton, Charles W., y, Willow Bank, Moss Lane 

East, Manchester 

Stead, Alice M., 23, Gloucester Road, Southport 
Stead, Edward F., 10, Adelaide Terrace, Waterloo, 


Talent, Jno., The Cliff, Higher Broughton 
*Tatham, Leonard, M.A., i, St. James's Square, 


Tatton, Thomas E., Wythenshawe Hall 
Taylor, Alexander, St. Mary's Place, Bury 



January 2gth, 1892 
March 2ist, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 
February yth, 1890 
December 6th, 1889 
October iath, 1888 
May 4th, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 

June 3oth, 1885 
October 8th, 1886 
April 3rd, 1891 
February 5th, 1886 

July 3ist, 1886 

Taylor, George, Buena Vista, Fallowfield 
Taylor, Henry, Braeside, Tunbridge Wells 
Taylor, Isaac, Stanford, Rusholme 
Taylor, Joshua, 277, Moorside, Droylsden 
Taylor, William, 76, Chorley Old Road, Bolton 
Teggin, William, Springfield Works, Salford 
Thomasson, J. S., ga, St. Peter's Square 
Thorp, J. Walter H., Jordan Gate House, 

Tonge, Rev. Canon Richard, M.A., Wilbraham 

Road, Chorlton-Cum-Hardy (deceased) 
*Trappes, Chas. B., J.P., Stanley House, Clitheroe 
*Tristram, Wm. H., Darcy Lever Hall, Bolton 
Tunnicliffe, Walter, J.P., The Firs, Leigh 
Turner, William, Purby Chase, Atherstone 

Underdown, H. W., 12, Booth Street, Piccadilly 

October 8th, 1886 

Virgo, Charles G., Queen's Park, Manchester 

December 7th, 1883 
July 3ist, 1886 

January 26th, 1894 
March 2nd, 1894 

November 6th, 1885 
May 4th, 1883 

March 2ist, 1883 
June nth, 1886 

July 3ist, 1886 

October i2th, 1888 
April 6th, 1894 
May 4th, 1883 

March 2nd, 1895 
September 26th, 1889 
March 2ist, 1883 
December 2ist, 1892 

March 2ist, 1883 
July 3ist, 1886 
March 2ist, 1883 


Waddington, William Angelo, Richmond Lodge, 

Wales, George Carew, Conservative Club, 


Warburton, Jno., 32, Oak Street, Withington 
Warburton, Samuel, 10, Wilton Polygon, 

Cheetham Hill 
Warburton, W. Daulby, M.A., 83, Bignor Street, 

Ward, Professor A. W., M.A., LL.D., The Owens 


Ward, James, Public Library, Leigh 
* Waters, Edwin H., Hawthorn Lea, Langham 

Road, Bowdon 
Watson, W. Alfred, n, Mayfield Grove, Embden 

Street, Hulme 

*Watt, Miss, Speke Hall, near Liverpool 
Watts, James, Abney Hall, Cheadle 
Webb, Richard, 34, Grafton Street, Oxford Road, 


Webber, Harry, 7, Cluny Street, Cheetham 
Wharton, Robert, Bolton Road, Pendleton 
Wieler, Miss R. C., Woodhurst Fallowfield 
Wilkinson, J. P., C.E., Assheton Road, Newton 

*Wilkinson, Thomas Read, Knutsford 

Wimpory, Alfred, Arts Club, Manchester 
*Wood, R. H., F.S.A., Penrhos House, Rugby 


December 2nd, 1892 Wocdburne, Geo. B. L., M.A., The Cottage, 

November i8th, 1884 Woodhouse, Rev. Canon Charles W., 65, Ardwick 

Green, Manchester 

April nth, 1890 Woodhouse, Samuel T., Abbotsley, Knutsford 

April nth, 1890 Worthington, Edward N., Granville Road, Fal- 

March 2ist, 1883 Worthington, Thomas, R.I.B.A., Broomfield, 

Alderley Edge 

May 4th, 1883 Wright, T. Frank, 441, City Road, Manchester 

December 22nd, 1884 Wylie, J. H., M.A., Heybrook, Rochdale 

March 2ist, 1883 fYates, George C., F.S.A., Swinton, Manchester 


Ackers John 95 
- Peter 95 

William 95 
Agecroft Bridge 20 
Alexander Family 90 
Allen George 79 
Altrincham 15 
Ameson Jno. 85 
Ancoats Bridge 21 
Andertonford Bridge 24 
Andrew Samuel on Copy Nook 140 
Annual Meeting 106 

Antrobus Phil. 63 

Archaeological Survey Committee 174 

Ashton-on-Mersey 14 

Ashworth Edmund 43 

Astbury 83 84 

Axon W, E. A. 116 118 145 

On Visitations of the Plague in 

Lancashire and Cheshire 52 

Bailey J. E. 86 

Baines T. 61 

Balderston Ferry 26 

Bamber Bridge 24 

Banks Mrs. Linnasus 118 

Barber R. 146 

Barlow Ford 15 

Barlow Alex. 127 

Barlowe Father Edwarde 120 

John 76 
Barrowford 23 

Beck 29 
Barton E. W. 117 
Barton Bridge 19 
Barwick George 64 

Bateman C.T. Tallent- 108 114 133 

Beamont W. 10 13 
Becconsall Marsh 23 
Bell Old at Bradshaw 115 
Bentham Roman Road 122 
Beswicke John 77 
Bevington George 91 
Bibbye Anne 71 
Bible Coins 115 

Bibliography of Lancashire and Cheshire- 
Antiquities 148 
Bidston Visit to 130 
Biggar Plague at 81 
Billangahoh 31 
Billinge Head 133 
Billington 32 
Birch John 95 
Birkenhead Ferry 7 129 

Priory 7 128 

Black Death at Didsbury 120 

in Lancashire and Cheshire 52 
Blackburn Plague at 72 
Blackford Bridge 22 

Blackley Chapel 88 

Deed 108 

Bland Dame Anne 121 
Blundell C. J. W. 123 

Henry 123 
Blundeville Randle 10 

Boat British found at Lower Walton 

Bolton Plague at 73 

Tokens 146 
Bootle Plague at 95 
Boteler Sir John n 
Bothe Thomas del 20 
Bourne William B.D. 69 
Bowringe Roger 76 


Bow Stone Gate 90 
Boydel Hugh n 12 
Bradford Ford 21 
Bradford on Kibble 27 
Bradley near Malpas 73 74 
Bradshaw Brook 22 

Old Bell at 115 

Bradshaw Alice dau. of James 88 

John 82 
Bradshawe Tho. 91 
Braid Family 93 
Brasses Molyneux 126 
Brayes Nicholas 58 
Brereton Mrs. 65 66 

William Lord 84 

Bridges Ancient in Lancashire i 

Bridgefriars 4 

British Archaeological Association 173 

Broad Howley 10 

Brockhall 27 32 

Eases 33 
Broadhurst Ralph 82 
Brooke Henry 68 
Brooks Sir W. C. 146 
Broughton Ford 20 
Browne W. T. 140 
Brun Brook 29 
Brungerley Ford 27 
Bucklow Manor 54 
Bulcock Henderson 36 
Bulckley Jno. 82 
Bulkeley Lady Margaret 127 
Bullasey Ford 27 32 
Burnley 29 142 

Moor Roman Fibula found 139 
Bury Bridge 21 

Byrom Beppy 12 17 19 

Cadishead Bridge 22 

Cairns F. E. 138 

Caius Dr. John 58 

Calcot Roger 62 

Calder River 3 28 30 

Caroe W. D. 125 

Carrington Bridge 13 

Cartmel 56 

Caryll Viscount Molyneux 126 

Case Thomas 108 

Castleton Deed 108 

Chambers Mrs. 94 

Cheadle Bridge and Ferry 16 17 

Charter's Moss 48 

Cheetham George 146 

James 146 

Cheshire Antiquities Bibliography 148 

Cheshire Plague in 52 

Chester Plague at 57 58 60 61 62 64 68 

71 72 90 91 96 
Chetham Edward 108 

Humphrey 26 

Raphe 76 

Chetham' s Close Stone Circles 42 134 

Chew Mill Ford 28 

Cholmondeley Viscount 79 

Chorlton Richard 76 

Chowbent 108 

Church Oldest Lancashire 100 

Churchill W. S. 139 

Claughton Bell 117 

Clayton Bridge 21 

Claytonford 22 

Glutton Henry and Maude his wife 74 

Coalpit Ancient at Hapton 142 

Coalpits so-called 141 

Cockerham Black Death at 55 

Plague at 93 
Coins Bible 115 
Collyhurst 80 87 
Congleton Plague at 65 66 82 
Cooke William 74 

Copy Nook Oldham 140 
Corbett Robert 58 59 
Costeer Charles 76 
Cowford Bridge 29 
Cox E. W. 128 

Dr. J. C. on Mediaeval Seals 142 
Cozens John 140 

Creighton Dr. 55 seq. 

Croft Capt. Thomas 96 

Crompton William 77 

Cromwell Oliver n 26 28 

Crosford Bridge (Cross Ford or Cross 

Ferry) 14 15 
Crosley Roger 28 
Crosses near Garstang 140 
Crosslidge 85 
Croston James 133 
Croston Ford 24 
Croxton Geffrey 76 
Cumberland Duke of 13 

Dalton Plague at 81 
Dalton John Medal of 114 
Darwen River 26 29 
Davenport Randle 65 
Dawber John 51 
Dawes Matthew 49 
Dawkins W. Boyd 37 

Address on Skulls 135 
Dawson Captain 121 

John 74 

Ralph 73 

Richard 73 74 

Thomas 73 74 
Dean John 135 

Dean Martyr Stone 113 
Diconson Raphe 70 
Didsbury Church Visit to 120 

Ford 1 6 

Pestilence 56 
Dinkley Ferry 27 
Ditton 8 



Dodson Judith 96 
Doeford Bridge 28 
Doubie Thomas 95 
Douglas River 23 
Droylsden Indenture 146 
Dryden Sir Henry 49 
Dublin 93 
Dukinfield Ford 18 
Dun .(Engus 117 
Dunham-on-the-Hill 94 
Dutton Sir Piers 114 

Earwaker J. P. 43 78 98 99 117 
Eastham Ferry 8 
Ecclesiological Committee 174 
Edisford Bridge 27 
Elston Ferry 26 
Esdaile George 106 
Estbrick Plague at 78 
Extwistle Moor 109 

Failsworth Plague at 64 

Fairholt F. W. 105 

Farrimond F. W. in 

Fenysford Bridge 3 28 

Ferries Ancient in Lancashire i 

Ferry at Birkenhead 129 

Fibula Roman found on Burnley Moors 


Fiddler's Ferry 9 
Fiennes Celia 24 
Fishwick H. 141 
Fleetwood Thomas 23 
Fletcher George 121 

Maria of Burnage 121 
Flint Implements 109 117 118 
Flixton Ferry 13 

Foard Field at Barlow 15 

Ford Isbele 104 

Fords Ancient in Lancashire i 

ftbrnace Tho. 79 

Foulke Ellen 68 

Fox Mr. 71 

French Gilbert J. 113 118 145 

On The Stone Circles on Chetham's 

Close 42 
Frodsham 105 

Garstang 108 147 

Black Death at 55 

Crosses 140 

Gaskin Family of Tarvin 96 

Gastrell Francis 105 

Gee John 76 

Gilliam Jo 80 

Glasier Mr. 65 

Glastonbury Excavations 137 

Glazebrook 22 

Goose Green Wigan 24 

Gorton Fr. 81 

Gradwell Mgr. Robert 138 

On The Oldest Church in Lancashire 

Great Edge Settlement 109 

Low Visit to 133 
Gregson W. E. 123 
Gresford Church Misereres no 
Greenhalgh Plague at 78 
Greenhalgh Thomas 43 45 
Grimeford Bridge 24 

Guest W. H. Obituary 175 

Hacking Ferry 27 

Hadocke Roger 89 

Hale Ferry 8 

Halle Richard 91 

Halsted Henry 142 

Hambleton 78 

Hambleton Hills Churches 145 

Hamnett Ford 18 

Hampson Elizabeth and John 90 

John Hymn Book 108 
Hanging Ditch 21 
Hapton 142 

Hapton Ricard 104 
Harbarrow 146 

Hardcastle Thomas 42 50 51 134 
Hardwick Charles 32 33 
Harrington William 16 
Harrison William 118 147 174 

On Ancient Fords Ferries and Bridges 

in Lancashire i 
Hartley John 87 
Hawkshead Plague at 64 
Haydocke Roger 91 
Heap Bridge 22 
Hebblethwaites Thomas 121 
Heber Bishop Reginald in 
Henry VI. 27 

Henry VII. Visit to Lancashire n 
Hesketh Bank 23 24 
Hewitson A. 100 
Heye Anna 142 
Heyrick Rev. R. 117 
Heysham St. Patrick's Chapel 101 
Heywood Nathan 104 115 147 
Hicitford 22 

Higger Brig on the Hodder 28 
Hilbree 129 
Hill Robt. 91 
Hillam Farm 14 
Hipping Stones Bridge 24 
Hodder River 28 30 
Hollinshed Wm. 83 85 
Hollin's Ferry or Hollinfare 12 
Hollin worth R. 56 seq. 
Hollow Ford 24 
Holme Edniond 6 
Holmes Bridge 19 
Hope W. H. St. John 143 

I 9 8 


Horrocksford 27 

Bridge 24 
Holt Emily 114 
Houlden Mary 86 
Howell Archdeacon in 
Hiibbersty Thomas 32 
Hues Peter 64 
Hughes John 59 

T. Cann 108 

On Misereres at Malpas and Gresford 

Hulme Otho 146 

Robert 146 
Hulton W. A. 9 
Hunt's Bank Bridge 21 
Hunter Jonathan 129 
Hutton Rev. F. R. C. 145 
Hyde Abigail 18 

Hyde Cross 81 

Ince Blundell Hall Visit to 123 

I nee Ferry 8 

Ingram James 83 

Inkle 83 85 

Irk River 21 

Irlam Ferry 18 

Jackson J. R. 135 

John son of Richard of Tadcaster 69 

Shadrach 108 135 147 

On Garstang Crosses 140 
Jackson's Boat 15 
Jefferie Thomas 73 

John Fitz Richard 9 
Johnson James 91 
Johnson's Ferry 23 
Judson Rev. R. K. 116 

Kay James 42 48 
Keene Jno. 85 
Keley Henry 76 
Kempe John 80 
Kendrick Dr. 12 
Kenyon Roger 21 

Rev. W. T. no 
Kenyon Papers 21 31 
Kersal Moor 118 
Kirk Edward 50 
Kirkdale 94 95 
Kirke Chaplain 69 
Kirkham Adam de 54 55 
Kirkham Black Death at 55 

Plague at 78 
Knights Hospitallers 9 
Knot Mill Bridge 21 

Lancashire Antiquities Bibliography 148 

Fords Feri'ies and Bridges i 

Plague in 52 
Lancashire Thomas 76 

Lancaster Black Death at 55 

Pestilence 57 
Langho 32 
Langlye Robert 80 

Langton Robert on a Stratford Relic 104 

On an Old Bell at Bradshaw 115 
Laplove Family 83 85 
Latchford 10 

Leake John 85 

Lee Robertus 104 

Leech Miss 13 14 

Legh Sir Urian 65 68 

Leicester (Lester) Rev. James 121 

Letts Rev. E. F. 117 

Lightboune Deed 108 

Lightbowne James 91 

Lincoln 104 

Lindow Common Gravestone at 98 

Linton Canon 128 

Lister Charles Obituary 176 

Little A. G. 54 

Liverpool Ferries 7 129 

- Plague at 58 59 64 72 90 92 93 94 95 

Lobenhoffer Carl 135 

London Road Bridge 21 

Longford Sir Ralph 16 

Longford Brook 22 

Longton Ferry 23 

Lostock Brook 24 

Low Great 133 

Luck Rev. J. R. on a Tumulus neat 

Stonyhurst 30 
Lunt 123 
Lunte John 94 
Lymm 12 
Lytham Black Death at 55 

Macclesfield Plague at 65 66 69 

Mace for Manchester Corporation 107 


Madeley Charles 146 
Maisterton Richard 68 
Malpas Church Misereres no 

Plague at 93 
Manchester Bridges 20 

Lady Mayoress's Chain 146 

Mace for the Corporation 102 115 

Medals commemorating the Queen's 

visit in 1887 114 

Pesthouse 70 seq. 

Plague at 58 59 61 64 66 69 70 72 79 

81 87 97 

Ship Canal 119 

Siege of 121 

Marbles Ancient at Ince Blundell 123 

March H. Colley 51 117 134 138 

Marsh George 113 

Marshall 71 

Martindale Adam 88 

Mearley or Pendleton Brook 29 

Medals Manchester 114 



Medlock River 21 

Meriot Richard 79 

Mersey Fords Ferries and Bridges 7 

Middle Brook 22 

Middlewich 91 


Misereres at Malpas and Gresford no 

Mitton Bridge 28 

Molyneux Family Monuments 126 

Moore Edward 94 

More Richard de 8 9 

Morris Canon H. R. 61 

Mortar Jacobean 104 

Mosley Ann 120 

Sir Edward 120 121 

Francis 76 

Sir Nicholas 120 

Moss Fletcher on Didsbury Church 120 
Mottram in Longdendale 104 

Nantwich Plague at 66 67 68 81 91 

Neild Hen. 91 

Netherton 54 

Newcome Rev. Henry 96 

Newton William 85 

Newton Plague at 78 

Nicholson Albert 106 114 115 135 

J. Holme 118 
Nickson Charles 9 
North Rode 83 
Northenden Ferry 15 16 
Northwich Plague at 63 67 
Norton 94 

Nowell Dean 61 

Obituary 175 

Obsidian Implements 147 

Okes Adam 83 

Oldest Church in Lancashire 100 

Oldham John of Stockport 69 

Oldham 80 

Church 117 

Copy Nook 140 

Orme Roger of Stockport 69 
Osbaldeston 26 
Overton Church 100 
Owen John 135 146 
Owen Lawrence 76 
Oxley T. 104 

Pack Saddle Bridge 22 

Parker T. 146 

Parkins Chancellor in 

Parnell Jno. 82 

Parson's Stamford 14 

Pearson J. 108 

Pendle Water 29 

Pendleton Brook 29 

Penketh Ferry 9 

Penkford Bridge 23 

Penwortham Bridge and Ford 25 

I Phillips Rob. 64 

Phillipps J. O. Halliwell 105 
Picton Sir J. A. 93 98 
Pincock Bridge 24 
Plague at Didsbury 120 

in Lancashire and Cheshire 52 

Stone 84 
Plymley Thomas 66 
Pontifex Brothers 4 
Portwood 1 8 
Potter's Ford 28 
Poulton Black Death at 55 
Poynton Randle 84 
Prestolee Bridge 20 
Preston William 78 
Preston 25 

Black Death at 55 

Plague at 57 61 78 81 
Pretender at Crosford 14 15 

at Warrington Bridge 12 13 
Probert Rev. W. 49 
Proceedings 104 

Pye James 95 

Radcliffe John and children 89 

Radclifte Bridge 20 

Raines F. R. 32 

Rainford Brook 23 

Rausthorne Edw. 81 

Redford J. 14.0 

Reedyford Bridge 29 

Renaud F. on a Jacobean Mortar 104 

Report of Council 172 

Ribble River 24 30 

Ribchester 30 

Black Death at 55 

Ford 26 
Richardson 118 
Rile H. 104 
Ringley Bridge 20 
Rixton Ford 12 13 
Roach River 22 
Robinson John 95 
Rochdale Manor 108 

Plague at 73 
Rodes Thomas 68 
Rollinson John 91 

Roman Fibula found on Burnley Moors 

Roads 14 122 

Roose Thomas on the Great Edge 

Settlement 108 
Rowbotham G. H. i 20 22 
Rufford 23 
Rules 179 

Runcorn Gap Ford 8 9 
Rushford Brook 22 

Sagar Henry 142 

James 142 

St. Michael's-on-Wyre Black Death at 55 


Sale Flint Arrow Head found 117 
Salford Bridge Burnley 29 

Bridge Clitheroe 29 

Constables 80 

Ford and Bridge 19 seq. 
Salterford Bridge 28 
Samlesbury Ferry 26 
Sandbach 118 

Sankey Brook 23 
Savage Sir John 62 
Savile Brook 29 
Scholes J. C. 50 115 

William 77 
Scotland Bridge 21 
Scott Widow 92 
Scrapers Hollow 139 
Seals Mediaeval 142 
Sephton Church Visit to 125 
Shaksperean Relic 105 
Sheldon Norman 118 
Sherburn Sir Richard 28 
Shrewsbury Plague 58 79 
Siddall Tom 121 
Simpson W. W. 34 
Singleton Allan de 101 
Skulls Human Ancient 136 
Slater Roger 85 

Slinger J. S. on the Roman Road at 

Bentham 122 
Smith Albert Christopher Tadpole 132 

C. Roach 105 

Cicely 68 

Doctor 89 91 

Elizabeth (Lancashire Bess) 87 

Thos. Vicar of Cockerham 93 
Smith Bridge 21 

Smithiford 22 

Smithy Brook 24 

Smyth Rose 74 

Stalybridge 18 

Stanley Thomas of Alderley 65 

Stanney Plague at 94 

Stanton Low 138 

Starkie Colonel Le Gendre 134 

Stockport 98 

Constables of 77 

or Stopford Bridge 17 

Plague at 68 
Stonaw E. 98 

Stone Circles on Chetham's Close 42 

Ford Flixton 13 

Implements 108 109 135 
Stonyhurst 28 

Tumulus 30 
Strand Bridge 23 
Stratford-on-Avon 108 
Stretford 14 

Stone 61 
Strong MissJ. B. 145 
Stubbs Frank 85 
Sturzaker Bailiff 94 

Stydd Chapel 100 
Sudden Brook 22 
Swann J. H. Bibliography of Lancashire 

and Cheshire Antiquities 148 
Sweating Sickness 57 
Swinden near Burnley no 

Tame River 18 
Tarleton Ferry 23 
Tarleton Michael 97 
Tarvin 68 96 
Tatham Roman Road 122 
Tawd Brook 24 
Taylor Alex. 115 135 

Robert 80 
Thelwall Ford 12 in 
Thicketford 22 
Thistleton Plague at 78 
Thistley Breast 135 
Tiddeman Mr. 39 
Tokens exhibited 145 
Tonge River 22 
Towneley Richard 142 
Townley Collection of Marbles 124 
Treales Plague at 78 
Treasurer's Statement 175 
Trows or Trough's Ferry 27 
Tumulus near Stonyhurst 30 

Turner Schoolmaster at Didsbury 121 
Turner Brook 22 
Turton Bridge 22 

Chetham's Close 42 134 
Twyford Richard 121 

Ulverston Plague 58 
Underbill William 105 
Urmston 14 

Venables Mrs. 96 
Victoria Bridge 20 

Waddington Hall 27 

Wade General 15 

Walker Roger 58 

Wall Rev. G. W. 127 

Walney Isle Plague in 81 

Walton Lower British.Boat found 119 

Walton-le-Dale Ford and Bridge 26 29 

Walworke Tho. 91 

Warburton 12 

Ward Richard 121 

Wardley Hall 138 

Warrant John 68 

Warrington Bridge n seq. 

Ford 9 

Plague at 91 

Watkin W. Thompson S 12 
Werneth 141 
Whalley 31 
Wharton Thomas 94 



Whiston 95 
Whitaker T. D. 32 
Widnes 8 9 
Wigan 94 

Bridge 24 

Plague at 96 
Wiggan John 95 
Wilderspool 12 

" Will the Ferryman " 9 
Wilkinson Tattersall no 139 
Williamson James of Stockport 69 

Wm. 94 

Wilmslow Plague at 98 
Wistaston Plague at 92 
Woden's Ford 19 
Woffenden Thomas 77 
Wood Joseph Obituary 175 
Woodburne G. B. L. 114 

Woodward Henry 39 
Woolden 22 
Worsley 95 

Charles M.P. 121 

Ralph 91 130 
Worsthorn 29 
Worthington James 91 

Roger 76 

Thomas 15 
Wrexham Plague at 79 
Wylde 71 
Wythenshawe Hall Siege of 121 

Yarrow Brook 24 

Yates G. C. 104 114 118 119 123 128 135 
138 145 

On Hollow Scrapers 139 

On Obsidian Implements 147 
















\_TJiose marked with an asterisk * are noivfor the first time included in the index, 
the others are continuations from the indexes of 1891 and 1892.] 

Anthropological Institute, Journal, vol. xxii, parts iii and iv, vol. xxiii, parts i 

and ii. 
Antiquaries (London), Proceedings of the Society, 2nd S., vol. xiv, part IT, vol. 

xv, part i. 

Antiquaries of Ireland, Proceedings of Koyal Society of, 5th S., vol. iii, parts i-iiL 
Archseologia, vol. liii, part ii. 
Archaeologia JEliana, vol. xvi, part ii. 
* Archaeologia Cantania, vol. xx. 
Archaeological Journal, vol. 1. 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 2nd S., vol. iv. 
Berkshire Architectural and Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. ii, part iv, 

vol. iii, parts i-iii. 

Birmingham and Midland Institute (Arch. Sec.), vol. xix. 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xvii. 
British Archaeological Association, Journal, vol. xlix. 
British Architects (Royal Institute of), Transactions, N.S., vol. ix. 
*Bucks Architectural and Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. vii. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, vol. viii. 
Cornwall, Eojal Institution of, Transactions, vol. xi. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Architectural and Archaeological Society, vol. xiii, 

part i. 

Cymmrodorion Society, Transactions, 1892-3. 
Devon Association, Transactions, vol. xxv. 
*East Riding Antiquarian Society, Transactions, vol. i. 
Essex Archaeological Society, Transactions, N.S., vol. iv. 
Folklore (Folklore Society), vol. iv. 
Hampshire Field Club, Transactions, vol. ii, part iii. 
Huguenot Society, Publications of, vol. iv. 
Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society, vol. vii. 
Norfolk Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xi. 
Numismatic Chronicle, 3rd S., vol. xiii. 
Oxfordshire Archaeological Society, Piiblications of, 1893. 
Royal Irish Academy, Proceedings, 3rd S., vol. ii, parts iv and v, vol. iii, parte 


St. Albans Architectural and Archaeological Society, Transactions, 1892. 
St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, Transactions, vol. iii, part iii. 


* Salisbury Field Club, Transactions, vol. i. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Transactions, 2nd S., vol. v, 
parts i-iii. 

Somersetshire Arcliseological and Natural History Society, Transactions, N.S., vol. 

*Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Transactions, vol. viii. 

Surrey Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xi, part ii. 

"Warwickshire Naturalists and Archaeologist Field Club, 1892-1893. 

Wilts Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. xxvii. 
*Worcester Archaeological Society, 1892. 

Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Journal, vol. xii. 

The following had not been issued in time for this index : 

William Salt Archaeological Society for Staffordshire, vol. xiv. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Field Club, vol. xiv. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Archaeological Society, vol. x. 


Societies whose transactions are not indexed in this part, or the preceding parts 
for 1892 and 1891, are requested to communicate with 


Care of W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Esq., 
Society of Antiquaries, 

Burlington House, W. 

Societies in union with the Society of Antiquaries, and other societies, may 
obtain single copies of the yearly index or a sufficient number of copies to bind up 
with their transactions for issue to each of their members. The value of the index 
for purposes of research and as a record of each year's archaeological work is so 
well recognised that many societies have adopted the latter system, and the more 
this is extended the less will be the cost to each society. For particulars of this 
and other works now being carried on by the associated societies application 
.should be made to W. H. St. John Hope, Esq., addressed as above. 


Ii\ 1893. 

ABERCROMBT (HoN. JOHN). Magic songs of the Finns. Folklore, iv. 


ALLEN (J. ROMILLY, F. S.A.Scot.). The Early Christian Monu- 
ments of Glamorganshire. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 15-22. 
ANDRE (J. L., F.S.A.). St. John the Baptist in art, legend, and 

ritual. Arch. Jour. 1. 1-19. 
ARMFIELD (REV. H. T., M.A., F.S.A.). The Essex dialect and its 

influence in the New World. Essex Arch. Sue. N.S. iv. 245-253. 
ARNOLD (GEORGE M., F.S.A.). The ruined chapel of St. Katherine 

at Shorne, Kent. Arch. Cant. xx. 195-202. 

On the old Rectory at Northfleet. Arcli. Cant. xx. 71-75. 

ARNOLD-BEMROSE (H., M.A., F.G.S.). Notes on Crich Hill. Jour. 

Derbijsh. Arch, and N. H. Soc. xvi. 44-51. 
ATKINSON (Gso. M.). Marks on Eastbourne Old Church. Arch. 

Jour. 1. 133-136. 
ATKINSON (ROBERT, LL.D.) On South-Coptic texts : a criticism on 

M. Bouriant's " Eloges du Martyr Victor, fils de Romanus." Free. 

Eoy. Irish Acad, 3rd S. iii. 225-284. 
On Professor Rossi's publication of South-Coptic texts. 

Proc. Roy. Irish Soc. 3rd S. iii. 24-99. 
ATKINSON (T. D.). On a Roman house at S waff ham Prior; on the 

hall of Michael House; on excavations at Ely Cathedral. 

Cambridge Antiq. Soc. Proc. viii. 229243. 
ATTREE (MAJOR F. W. T., R.E.). Some Hampshire dedications 

gathered from Pre-Reformation Wills. Hampshire Field Club, ii. 

BAILDON (W. PALEY, F.S.A.). An original pardon granted to Sir 

John Moore under the great seal of James II. dated October 22, 

1688. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 58-61. 


BAKER (F. BRAYNE). Some rare or unpublished Greek coins. Num. 

Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 21-25. 
BAKER (REV. H. DE FOE). Will of Lady Mary Lisle. Salisbury Field 

Club,i. 172-173. 
BALL (V., C.B., LL.D., F.R.S.). On the volcanoes and hot springs of 

India, and the folklore connected therewith. Proc. Roy. Irish 

Acad. 3rd S. iii. 151-169. 

BARCLAY (EDGAR). Sfconehecge. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 179-205. 
BARING-GOULD (REV. S.). Ancient settlement at Trewortha. Eoy. 

List. Corn. xi. 289-290. 
BARKLY (Sm HENRY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., etc.). The Berkeleys of 

Cobberley. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xvii. 96-125. 
BATEMAN (CHARLES E.). Castle Bromwich Church. Trans. Birm. and 

Midland Inst. xix. 1-7. 
BATES (CADWALLADER J.). Flodden Field. Arch. JEliana, N.S. xvi. 

BATESON (Miss MARY). The register of Crabhouse Nunnery. Norfolk 

Arch. Soc. xi. 1-71. 
BAX (ALFRED RIDLEY, F.S.A.). Marriage and other licenses in the 

Commissary Court of Surrey. Surrey Arch. Soc. xi. 204-243. 
BEAUFORT (W. M.). Records of the French Protestant School founded 

by Huguenot refugees, 1747. PuUus. Huguenot Soc. iv. 355- 

BECKLEY (F. J., B.A.). Notes on Irish architecture. Trans. St. 

Paul's Eccl. Soc. iii. 142-154. 

BELL (ALFRED). Notes on the correlation of the later and Post- 
Pliocene Tertiaries on either side of the Irish Sea, with a reference 

to the fauna of the St. Erth Valley, Cornwall. Proc. Eoy. Irish 

Acad. 3rd S. ii. 620-642. 
BELL (EDWARD, M. A., F.S.A.). The origin and use of the word " Tri- 

forium." Trans. St. Paul's EccL Soc. iii. 124-130. 
BELLAIRS (CoL.). The Roman roads of Leicestershire. Trans. Leicest. 

Archit. and Arch. Soc. vii. '357-364. 
BELOE (EDWARD MILLIGEN, F.S.A.). The mortuary, or absolution 

cross. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 303-319. 
BENSLEY (W. T., LL.D., F.S.A.). On some sculptured alabaster panels 

in Norwich. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 352-358. 
BERKS. Early Berkshire Wills, ante 1558. Jour. Berks. A. and A. Soc. 

ii. 175-178; iii. 47-48, 79-82. 
BICKLEY (WILLIAM B.). Parish registers of Warwickshire. Trans. 

Birm. and Midland Inst. xix. 71-104. 


BIGGER (FRANCIS JOSEPH, M.B.I. A.). Pre-historic and historic forts 

and 'Baths in the city and vicinity of Belfast. Belfast Nat. 

Field Club, 2nd S. iv. 71-82. 
BIRCH (W. DE GRAY, F.S.A.). Notes on the Isis in the Saxon 

Charters and the signification of Berkshire. Jour. Brit. Arch. 

Assoc. xlix. 251-256. 

BIRD (W. H. B.). Astley, in the parish of Alveley. Trans. Shrop- 
shire A. and N. H. Soc. 2nd S. v. 63-77. 
BLACKMORE (H. P., M.D.). On a barrow near Old Sarutn. Salisbury 

Field Club, i. 49-51. 
BLAIR (ROBERT, F.S.A.). On some fragments of Roman sculptured 

and inscribed stones lately found at Wallsend. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 

2nd S. xv. 67-69. 
On a Roman altar found at Lanchester, county Durham. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 35-37. 

BLAKEWAY (REV. JOHN BRICKDALE, M.A., F.S.A.). History of Shrews- 
bury hundred or liberties. Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. Soc. 

2nd S. v. 353-394. 
BOLOGBROKE (L. G.). Pre-Eiizabethan plays and players in Norfolk. 

Norfolk Arch. Soc, xi. 332-351. 
BOWER (REV. R., M.A.). Brasses in the diocese of Carlisle. Trans. 

Climb, and Westm. Ant. and Arch. Soc. xiii. 142-151. 
BOWLY (CHRISTOPHER). On a Roman inscribed stone found at Ciren- 

cester. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xvii. 63-67. 
BOYD (J. ST. GLAIR, M.D.). The Irish language. Belfast Nat. Field 

Club, 2nd S. iv. 97-110. 
BOYLE (J. R., F.S.A.). The goldsmiths of Newcastle. Arch. ^Eliana, 

N.S. xvi. 397-440. 
BOYS (REV. H. J., M.A.). Layer Marney Church. Essex Arch. Soc. 

N.S. iv. 227-234. 
BRABROOK (E. W.). On the organisation of local anthropological 

research. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxii. 262-274. 
BRADLEY (JOHN W., B.A.). Badges, devises, and heraldic ornaments 

of the Middle Ages. Trans. Birm. and Midland Inst. xix. 46-58. 
BRASSIXGTON (W. SALT, F.S.A.). Notes on ecclesiastical seals of 

Warwickshire. Trans. Birm. and Midland Inst. xix. 59-70. 
BRIDGES (T.). A few notes on the structure of Yahgan [language.] 

Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiii. 53-80. 
BROCK (E. P. LOFTUS, F.S.A.). Excavation of the site of Winchcombe 

Abbey, Gloucestershire. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 163-172. 
BROCK (E. P. LOFTUS, F.S. A.). . A comparison of the Roman stations of 


Caerwent, Caerleon, and Cardiff. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 

BKOWN (Gr. BALDWIN). How to use Vitruvius. Trans. R.I.B.A. ix. 

BROWNE (C. R., M.D.), On some crania from Tipperary, Proc.Roy. 

Irish Acad. 3rd S. ii. 649-654. 
BROWNE (CHARLES, M.A., F.S.A.). Ecclesiastical head-dress. Trans. 

St. Paul's Heel. Soc. iii. 155-164. 
BROWNE (REV. J. CAVE, M.A.). Leeds Church, Kent. Jour. Brit. 

Arch. Assoc. xlix. 285-297. 

Leeds Priory, Kent. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 89-102. 

- Detling Church, Kent. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 

BROWNLOW (RT. REV. MONSIGNOR, M.A.). A Visitation of St.* Mary 

church in A.D. 1301. Devon Assoc. xxv. 431-448. 
BRUSHFIELD (T. N., M.D.). President's address to the Devonshire 

Association. Devon Assoc. xxv. 25-158. 
Richard Izacke, and his " Antiquities of Exeter." Devon 

Assoc. xxv. 449469. 
BUCKLAND (A. W.). Points of contact between old world myths and 

customs and the Navajo myth, entitled " The Mountain Chant." 

Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxii. 346-355. 
BUDGE (E. A. WALLIS, Litt.D., F.S.A.). On a Coptic grave-shirt in 

the possession of General Sir Francis Grenfell. Archceologia, liii. 

BUICK (REV. GEO. R., A.M., M.R.I.A.). Weavers' candle-holders. 

Roy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iii. 292-294. 
The Crannog of Moylarg. Roy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. 

iii. 27-43. 
BuLKELEY-OwEN (HON. MRS.). Selattyn : A history of the parish. 

Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. Soc. 2nd S. v. 1-30, 151-210, 


Place-names in vol. i. of the publications of the Dartmoor Pre- 
servation Association. Devon Assoc. xxv. 482-509. 
BURNS (REV. J. S.). Syon Abbey. Devon Assoc. xxv. 343-355. 
BURTCHAELL (GEO. DAMES, M.A., LL.B., M.R.I. A.). The Geraldines of 

the county Kilkenny. Pt. II. The Barons of Overk and the Barons 

of Knocktopher. Roy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iii. 179-186. 
CALVERLEY (REV. W. S., F.S.A.). Pre-Norman cross-shaft at Hever- 

sham. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Arch, and Ant. S oc. xiii. 118-124 


CANDLER (CHAELES). On the signiBcance of some East Anglian Field- 
names. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 143-178. 
CARDWELL (JOHN). The ancient church of Lisnagarric. Belfast Nat. 

Field Club, 2nd S. iv. 82-8 1. 

CARRINGTON (W. A.). Selections from the Steward's accounts pre- 
served at Haddon Hall for the years 1549 and 1564. Jour. 

Derbysh. Arch, and N. H. Soc. xvi. 61-85. 
List of recusants in the Peak of Derbyshire, 1616 ; list of 

bucks killed at Haddon 1669 ; names of Derbyshire gentlemen 

charged for the levy of three horsemen, &c. Jour. Derbysh. Arch, 

and N. E. Soc. xvi. 140-156. 
CHALMERS (J.). Burton church. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Ant. and 

Arch. Soc. xiii. 64-68. 
CHAMBERLAIN (BASIL HALL). Notes on some minor Japanese religious 

practices. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxii. 355-370. 
CHEALES (H. J., M.A.). On the wall-paintings in All Saints' Church, 

Friskney, Lincolnshire. Archwologia, liii. 427-432. 
CHURCH (REV. C. M., M.A., F.S.A.). The Prebendal Psalms in the 

Church of Wells. ^ Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. N.S. xix. 


CHUTE (CHALONER WM.). The Vyne [a house in the north of Hamp- 
shire]. Salisbury Field Club, i. 100-103. 
CLARK (PROFESSOR E. C., LL.D., F.S.A.). English academical 

costume (mediaeval). Arch. Journ. 1. 73-104, 137-149, 183-209. 
CLARK (REV. W. GILCHRIST). Unpublished documents relating to the 

arrest of Sir William Sharington, January, 1549. Wilts Arch. 

and N. H. Mag. xxvii. 159-170. 
CLARKE (ERNEST, F.S.A.). On the palimpset brass of Sir Anthony 

and Dame Fitzherbert in Norbury Church, Derbyshire. Proc. 

Antiq. Soc. 2nd S. xv. 96-99. 
CLUTTERBUCK (Rsv. R. H., F.S.A.). Sarum [Excursions from and 

to] Salisbury Field Club, i. 160-166. 

CODRINGTON (R. H.). Melanesian Folk-Tales. Folklore, iv. 509-512.. 
COLE (REV. E. MAULE, M.A., F.G.S.). Danes' Dike. Trans. East 

Riding Antiq. Soc. i. 53-58. 
COLEMAN (REV. WILL. L.). Some place and field names of the 

parish of Staveley. Jour. Derbysh. Arch, and N. H. Soc. xvi. 


COLLIER (W. F.). Devonshire dialect. Devon Assoc. xxv. 276-285. 
COMPTON (C. H.). The ancient church in Wales. Jour. Brit. Arch. 

Assoc. xlix. 129-137. 


COOPER (C. DUDLEY, M.R.C.S.). Notes on the skull of an aboriginal 

Australian. Jour. Antlirop. Inst. xxiii. 153-156. 
COOPER (REV. JAMES, D.D.). Ecclesiology in Scotland. Trans. St. 

Paul's Eccl. Soc. iii. 131-141. 
COOPER (REV. T. S., M.A.). The church plate of Surrey. Surrey Arch. 

Soc. xi. 252-284. 
COSSON (BARON DE, F.S.A.). The crossbow of Ulrich V. Count of 

Wurtemburg, 1460, with remarks on its construction. Archceo- 

logia, liii. 445-464. 
COULTON (JOHN JAMES). Names on the Nar. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 

COWPER (H. SWAINSON, F.S.A.). The ancient settlements, cemeteries, 

and earthworks of Furness. Archceologia, liii. 389-426. 
Gleaston Castle. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Ant. and Arch. 

Soc. xiii. 37-49. 

On some obsolete and semi-obsolete appliances. Trans. 

Cumb. and Westm. Ant. and Arch. Soc. xiii. 86-102. 
Cox (REV. J. CHARLES, LL.D., F.S.A.). The annals of the Abbey of 

Meaux. Trans, East Hiding Antiq. Soc. i. 1-45. 
An Elizabethan clergy list of the diocese of Lichfield. 

Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. Soc. 2nd S. v. 253-260. 
CRAIGIE (W. A.). The oldest Icelandic folklore. Folklore, iv. 

CRAWFURD (REV. G. P.). Vachell [family] of Coley, Reading. Jour. 

Berks. A. and A. Soc. iii. 2-10, 32-40, 64-68. 
CRISP (FREDERICK ARTHUR). Surrey wills. Surrey Arch. Soc. xi. 

CROMBIE (JAMES E.). First footing in Aberdeenshire. Folklore, iv. 


Adrian IV. relating to Neasham Priory, co. Durham. Arch. 

jEliana, N.S. xvi. 268-273. 
CROUCH (WALTER, F.Z.S., &c.). Memoir of the late Henry William 

King, of Leigh. Essex Arch. Soc. KS. iv. 307-315. 
CDMING (H. SYER, Y.P., F.S.A.Scot). Old traders' signs in Little 

Britain. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 108-116. 
Old traders' signs in Duck Lane. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. 

xlix. 117-119. 
CUNNINGHAM (MAJ.-GEN. SIR A., R.E., K.C.I.E., C.S.I.;. Later Indo- 

Scythians. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 93-128, 166-202. 
CURREY (H. E., M.A.). Supplemental notes on the almshouse of 


Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury. Jour. Derby sh. Arch, and N. 

H. Soc. xvi. 1-13. 
CURTIS (CANON). Description of the sarcophagus in the Imperial 

Museum, Constantinople. Trans. B.I.B.A. ix. 436. 
DAMES (M. LONGWORTH). Balochi tales. Folklore, iv. 195-206, 285- 

302, 518-528. 
DARTNELL (G. E.) and REV. E. H. GODDARD. Contributions towards 

a Wiltshire glossary. Wilts Arch, and N. H. Mag. xxvii. 124-159. 
DAVID (REV. WILLIAM, M.A.). A brief history of St. Fagan's, 

Glamorganshire. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 23-33. 
DAVIS (CECIL T.). Merchants' Marks. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 

DAVIS (.REV. R. G.). The Oratory of Barton. Hampshire Field Club, 

ii. 295-307. 
DAVYS (REV. CANON). St. Mary's, Eaton Bray. Trans. St. Allans 

Archit. and Arch. Soc. for 1892, 42-46. 
DAVYS (F. TREVOR). Edlesborough, Buckinghamshire. Trans. St. 

Albans Archit. and Arch. Soc. for 1892, 33-41. 
DEANE (SiR THOMAS NEWENHAM). A report on ancient monuments in 

co. Kerry. Proc. Roy. Irish Soc. 3rd S. iii. 100-107. 
DICKSON (JOHN M.). Relative antiquity of rath, cromleac and 

burial tumulus : as evidenced by some ancient remains near 

Dromore, co. Down. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 2nd S. iv. 55-70. 
DILLON (Ri. HON. VISCOUNT, V.P.S.A.). Calais and the Pale. 

Archceologia, liii. 289-388. 
On the development of gunlocks, from examples in the 

Tower. Arch. Jour. 1. 115-132. 

DONNELLY (MosT REV. N., D.D., M.R.I.A., Bishop of Canea). Incum- 
bents of Killadreenan and Archdeacons of Glendalough in the 

fifteenth century ; with extracts from the Roman archives. 

Soy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iii. 123-139. 
DORFELD (DR. W.). The Hypsethral Temple. Trans. R.LB.A. ix. 

DORLING (E. E.). Licence to the vicars of Sarum 1337. Salisbury 

Field Club, i. 104. 
DORMAN (THOMAS). Extracts from the account books of Captain 

John Harvey, R.N., Mayor of Sandwich 17745. Arch. Cant. 

xx. 222-227. 
DOUGLAS (PROF. R. K., M.A.). The social and religious ideas of the 

Chinese, as illustrated in the ideographic characters of the lan- 
guage. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxii. 159-173. 


DOWKER (G.). On Romano-British fictile vessels from Preston near 

Wingham. Arch. Cant. xx. 49-53. 
DREDGE (REV. J. INGLE). The Marwood list of brief* 1714-1774. 

Devon Assoc. xxv. 356-381. 

A few sheaves of Devon bibliography, Devon Assoc. xxv. 


DUCKWORTH (W. LAURENCE H., B.A.). Description of two skulls from 

Nagyr. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiii. 121-134. 
DUNCAN (LELAND L., F.S.A.). Kentish administrations, 1604-1649. 

Arch. Cant. xx. 1-48. 

Folklore gleanings from county Leitrim. Folklore, iv. 176- 


Folklore in Wilts. Folklore, iv. 513-517. 

DUNLOP (ANDREW, M.D., F.G.S.). A contribution to the ethnology 

of Jersey. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxii. 335-345. 
DYER (Louis). Greek Folklore; on the breaking of vessels as a 

funeral rite in Modern Greece ; translated from the original of 

N". G. Politis, Professor at the University of Athens. Jour. 

Anthrop. Inst. xxiii. 2841. 
EBBLEWHITE (ERNEST ARTHUR, F.S.A). The village and church 

of Bedfont, co. Middlesex. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 

ELLIOT (G. F. SCOTT, M.A., F.L.S.). Some notes on native West 

African customs. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiii. 8083. 
ELLIS (A. S=). Yorkshire Deeds. Tories. Arch. Jour. xii. 289-308. 
ELWORTHY (F. T.). Witham Priory. Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. 

Soc. N.S. xix. 1-30. 
. Thirteenth report of the committee on Devonshire verbal 

provincialisms. Devon Assoc. xxv. 181211. 
EVANS (ARTHUR J.,M. A., F.S.A. ). On the prehistoric interments of 

the Balzi Rossi Caves near Mentone, and their relation to the 

Neolithic Cave-burials of the Finalese. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxii. 

EVANS (SiR JOHN, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.). Find of coins at 

Nesb, Norway. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 36-39. 
A new Saxon mint, Weardbyrig. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 

Hertfordshire tokens. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 282- 


FAIRBANK (F. R., M.D., F.S.A.). The House of Grey Friars, Don- 
caster. Yorks. Arch. Jour. xii. 481-486. 


FERGUSON (CHANCELLOR, M.A., LL.M., F.S.A.). On two Roman 
inscriptions found at Carlisle. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 118- 


An archaeological survey of Cumberland and Westmorland, 

and of Lancashire North-of- the- Sands, by II. Swainson Cowper, 
F.S.A. Archceologia, liii. 485-538. 

The Denton manuscripts. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Ant. 

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On a bronze vessel of Roman date found at Clifton, near 

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A survey of the city of Carlisle in 1684-5 from the col- 
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FIELDER (W.). Stone coffins found under the pavement in south 

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FLETCHER (REV. WM. GEO. DIMOCK, M.A., F.S.A.). Will of Sir Edward 

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The family of Story of Lockington. Trans. Leicest. Archit. 

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FOWLER (REV. H., M.A.). Ivinghoe Church. Trans. St. Allans 

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Fox (GEORGE E., F.S.A.) and W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A. Excava- 


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Fox (GEORGE E., F.S.A.). A note on the discovery of painted beams 

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FRANKS (A. W., C.B., Litt.D.. F.R.S., F.S.A.). President's Address 

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FRAMPTON (REV. THOMAS SHIPDEM, M.A., F.S.A.). List of forty-five 

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- Fifty-eight Rectors of Trottescliffe. Arch. Cant. xx. 187-194. 
List of incumbents of St. Peter's, Seal. (Held with 

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Early presentations to Kentish Benefices. Arch. Cant. xx. 

FRAZER (WILLIAM, F.R.C.S.I., M.R.I.A., Hon. F.S.A. Scot.). Recent 

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The Medallists of Ireland and their work. Roy. Soc. Antiq. 

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On a skull from Lincoln, and on Irish Crania. Proc. Roy. 

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FRESHFIELD (EDWIN, LL.D., F.S.A.). Opening Address of the 

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Warwicksh. Nat. and Arch. Field Club, 1892, 43-57. 
The waters of the Arden : a sketch of its springs, wells, 

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Warwicksh. Nat. and Arch. Field Club, 1893, 19-36. 

The Wroth-silver ceremony at Knightlow. Warwicksh. 

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Cirencester Hospitals. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xvii. 


GALPIN (REV. F. W., M.A., F.L.S.). Notes on the tombs and 
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GARDINER (REV. R. B., M.A., F.S.A.). Account of an effigy of a lady 

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GARNETT (FRED BROOKSBANK, C.B.). Queen Katherine Parr and 

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GATE (Miss P.). Szekely Tales. Folklore, iv. 328-344 
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GODDEN (GERTRUDE M.). The False Bride. Folklore, iv. 142-148. 

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GRAY (WILLIAM, M.R.I. A.). Our holy wells: a folklore chapter. 

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GRIFFITH (R. W. S.). The Gipsies of the New Forest. Hampshire 

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GROVES (DR., F.G.S.). Osborne, Isle of Wight, and the families who 

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HADDON (PROF. A. C.). A batch of Irish folklore. Folklore, iv. 349- 

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HADDON (PROF. A. C.). Studies in Irish Craniology : The Aran 

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HANCOCK (REV. F.). The ancient chapels in the valley of Holnicote. 

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HARDY (W. J., F.S.A.). Some old lawsuits connected with St. 

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HARRIS (REV. S. G., M.A.). John Tucker: parish clerk of Corn- 
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HART (CHARLES J.). The old ironwork of Warwickshire. Trans. 

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HASLEWOOD (REV. FRANCIS, F.S.A.). The ancient families of Suffolk. 

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HASTIE (GK). First footing in Scotland. Folklore, iv. 309-314. 
HAVERFIELD (F. J., M.A., F.S.A.). On the Roman altar to the goddess 

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A fourth century tombstone from Carlisle. Trans. Cumb. 

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On two Roman inscriptions recently found at Carlisle. 

Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Ant. and Arch. Soc. xiii. 224-226. 

On two Roman inscriptions found at Carlisle, and on a 

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Romano-British inscriptions, 1892-1893. Arch. Jour. 1. 


Three notable inscriptions. Arch. Jour. 1. 308-321. 

HAYWARD (REV. DOUGLAS L.). Notes on Somerton churchwardens' 
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HAYWARD (CHAS. FORSTER, F.S.A., F R.I.B.A.). Notes on Hedingham 
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HEAD (BARCLAY V., D.C.L., Ph.D.). On coins recently attributed to 
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The initial coinage of Athens, &c. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 

HEALY (REV. J., LL.D.) " The baptism of our Lord," as represented 

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HEBB (JOHN). The lion of St. Mark. Trans. R.I.B.A. ix. 182-183. 
HICKSON (Miss). Old place-names and surnames. Roy. Soc. Antiq. 

Ireland, 5th S. iii. 261-267. 
HILL (G. F., B.A.). Neapolis Datenon. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 

HOBHOUSE (RIGHT REV. BISHOP). In Gordano [affix to four parishes 

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HODGES (CHARLES CLEMENT). Sedgefield Church. Arch. jEliana, N.S. 

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The architectural history of Seiby Abbey. Yorks. Arch. 

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HODGSON (T. H.). Cumberland and Westmorland under the Tudors. 

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HOLMES (SHERITON). The Roman bridges across the North Tyne 

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HONE (NATHANIEL). Early charters and documents relating to the 

church and manor of Bisham, Berks. Jour. Berks. A. and A^ 

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Inquisition " de probatione setatis " of Elizabeth, daughter 

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HOOPPELL (REV. R. E., LL.D., D.C.L.). On the Roman altar 

to the goddess Garmangabis found at Lanchester (co. Durham) 

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HOPE (R. C., F.S.A.). English Bellfounders, 1150-1893. Arch. Jour. 

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HOPE (W. H. ST. JOHN, M.A.). The insignia of the city of Chichester, 

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HOPE (W. H. ST. JOHN, M.A.). Fourteen matrices of seals belonging 
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On the armorial ensigns of the University and Colleges cf 
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The common seal of the borough of Appleby. Trans. Cumb. 

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On the seals of archdeacons. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 


On a statute merchant seal for Kingston-upon-Hull. Proc. 

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On two carved panels of alabaster. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd 

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HOPPER (EDMUND C., M. A.). Church plate in Suffolk. Suffolk Ins. 
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HOSE (C.). The natives of Borneo. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiii. 156- 

HOWOETH (SiR HENRY, K.C.I.E., F.S.A., M.P.). Documents con- 
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On coins recently attributed to Eretria. Num. Ghron. 3rd 

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The initial coinage of Athens, etc. Num. Chron. 3rd S. 

xiii. 241-246. 

Some early gold coins struck in Britain. Num. Chron. 

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HUDSON (REV. W., M.A.). A revised list of the bailiffs of the city 

of Norwich. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 228-256. 
HiiGEL (BARON ANATOLE VON). On an ancient well at Mountsorrel. 

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HUGHES (PROF.). Antiquities found at or near Manea. Cambridge 

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On the Castle Hill, Cambridge. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. 

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HUGHES (T. M'KENNY, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A.). On Offa's Dyke. 

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IRVINE (J. T.). Peterborough Cathedral ; an attempt to recover the 

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JACOBS (JOSEPH). The Folk. Folklore, iv. 233-238. 

Cinderella in Britain. Folklore, iv. 269-284. 

JAMES (M. R.). On the frescoes in Eton College Chapel. Cambridge 

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On the glass in the windows of the Library at St. Albaiis 

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Library of Pembroke College. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. Proc. viii. 

On a MS. Psalter in the University Library; on a Greek 

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JARVIS (REV. HENRY, M.A.). Poslingford Church. Suffolk Ins. Arch. 

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JOHNSON (REV. ANTHONY). Blanchland. Arch. JEliana, N.S. xvi. 


Staley. Arch. JEliana, N.S. xvi. 339-350. 

JONES (LLEWELLYN). Churchwardens' accounts of the town of 

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JONES (W. LEWIS, M.A.). The Celt and the poetry of Nature. Trans. 

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JONES (WINSLOW). The authors of "The Worthies of Devon," and 

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KARKEEK (PAUL Q., M.R.C.S.). The story of Torbay. Devon Assoc. 

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KEMP (THOMAS). Extracts from the brief book of St. Mary's, War- 
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KENWORTHY (Rev. J. W., Vicar). St. Michael's Church, Braintree, 

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KERRY (REV. CHARLES). Early charters of Breadsall, with some 

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Derbyshire Tapestry. Jour. Derbysh. Arch, and N. H. Soc. 

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KINGSBURY (REV. CANON, M.A.). A titular bishop of Salisbury in the 

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KINGSFORD (REV. HAMILTON, M.A.). Notes on Hermitages. Worcester 

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B 2 


KNOWLES (W. H.,F.R.I.B.A.). The old "Fox and Lamb " public 

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KNOWLES (W. J., M.R.I.A.). Irish stone axes and chisels. Eoy. 

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LAMBERT (GEORGE, F.S.A.). Notes on occasion of a visit to Isca, 

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LANG (ANDREW, M.A.). Cinderella and the diffusion of tales. Folk- 
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LANGDON (ARTHUR G.), An ogam stone at Lewannick, Cornwall. 

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Coped stones in Cornwall. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlix. 

LANGLEY (A. F. C. 0.). The family of Langley of Shropshire. Trans. 

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LASHAM (FRANK). Neolithic und bronze age man in West Surrey. 

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LAYER (HENRY, F.S.A.). On -some Roman lamps of unusual form 

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LAWRENCE (L. A.). Coinage of ^Ethelbald. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 


Silver coins of Edward III. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 46-59. 

LA YARD (FLORENCE L.). Henri Due de Rohan. Publus. Huguenot- 

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LAYARD (Ri. HON. SIR HENRY A., G.C.B.). Address to the ninth 

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The Due de Rohan's relations with the Republic of Venice 

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LEACH (A. F., M.A., F.S.A.). On the foundation deed of a chantry 

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LEACH (R. E., M.A., F.G.S.). Benefactors to the Library, Appleby 

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LEADMAN (ALEX. D. H., F.S.A.). A survey of Isurium. Torks. Arch. 

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LEVETT (REV. GREVILLE M.). Early-Norman churches in and near 

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LEWIS (A. L., F.S.A.). On the connection between stone circles 

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LYTE (H. C. MAXWELL, C.B., F.S.A.). Opening Address of the 

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MACALISTER (A., LL.IX, D.Sc., M.D., F.R.S.). Notes on Egyptian 

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MACLEAN (SiR JOHN, F.S.A., etc.). Historical notes on the parish 
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Pedes Finium or excerpts from the feet of fines, in the 

county of Gloucester, from the 30th Elizabeth to 20th James I. 

Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xvii. 126-144. 
MACMICHAEL (J. H.). The Bellarmine or Greybeard. Jour. Brit 

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MAGUIRE (T. MILLER, LL.D.). Huguenot Commanders. Publus 

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MALDEN (A. R.). Survey of the close of Salisbury in 1649. 

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MANNING (REV. C. R., M.A., F.S.A.). Monumental brass inscriptions, 

etc., in Norfolk, omitted in Blomefield's History of the County. 

Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 72-104, 182-207. 

. Buckenham Castle. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 137-142. 
The will and codicil of Peter Peterson, citizen and gold- 
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Three old halls in Norfolk. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 323-331. 

MARCH (H. COLLET, M.D., F.S.A.). Polynesian ornament a mytho- 
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MARKHAM (CHRISTOPHER, A., F.S.A.). On a silver gilt paten of Paria 
make, and a York apostle spoon with perforated bowl, belonging 


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MAEKLAND (CAPT. JAMES). Carisbrooke Castle. Hampshire Field 

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MAETIN (J. M., C.E,, etc.). Some further notes on Exmouth Warren. 

Devon Assoc. xxv. 406-415. 
Broadbury and its ancient earthworks. Devon Assoc. xxv. 

MAETIN (REV. W.) Some fragments of sculptured stone found in a 

barn at East Barsham, Norfolk. Norfolk Arch. Soc. xi. 257-258. 
MATHEW (REV. JOHN, M. A., B.D.). The cave paintings of Australia, 

their authorship and significance. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiii. 

MICKLETHWAITE (J. T., F.S.A.). On some pottery and other antiquities 

found in Kirkstall and Fountains Abbeys. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd 

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MILFOED (REV. R. N.). East Knoyle. Salisbury Field Club, i. 84-87, 

127-131, 175-178. 
MINET (WILLIAM, M.A., F.S.A.). The fourth foreign church at Dover 

Publus. Huguenot Soc. iv. 93-217. 
MINNS (REV. G. W., LL.B., F.S.A.). The Slavonian tombstone at 

North Stoneham. Hampshire Field Club, ii. 357-364. 
MONDAY (A. J.). The last will and testament of Dame Elizabeth 

Biconyll, widow of Sir John Biconyll [or Bicknell], Knight. 

Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. N.S. xix. 35-42. 
MONEY (WALTER, F.S.A.). On a Roman sculptured figure found at 

Froxfield, Wilts, and other antiquities. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. 

xv. 87-90. 
On a pair of gaufreing or wafering irons. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 

2nd S. xv. 22-23. 
The battle of Ethandune. Wilts Arch, and N. H. Mag. xxvii. 

MONTAGUE (H., F.S.A.). On a find of coins at Fischenich, near 

Cologne, with observations on Flemish imitations of English 

nobles. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xiii. 26-35. 
MOORE (JOSEPH H., C.E.). Notices of the town of Navan. Eoy. Soc. 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iii. 55-63. 
MOEEIS (REV. M. C. F., B.C.L., M.A.). East Riding field-names. 

Trans. East Hiding Antiq. Soc. i. 59-65. 

MOEEIS (T. E.). Sacred wells in Wales. Folklore, iv. 55-79. 
MURPHY (REV. DENIS, SJ., M.R.I. A.). The college of the Irish 


Franciscans at Louvain. Eoy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. iii. 

MUEEAY (A. S., LL.D., F.S.A.). On some Greek inscriptions from 

Halicarnassus. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xiv. 380-381. 
Note upon a bronze bell from the Cabeirion, near Thebes, 

in Bceotia. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 74-76. 
MYEES (JOHN L., B.A.). History and antiquities of Water Stratford, 

Bucks. Bucks Archit. and Arch. Soc. vii. 115-136. 
NISBETT (N. C. H., A.B.I.B.A.). Notes on some examples of Saxon 

architecture in Hampshire. Hampshire Field Club, ii. 309-316. 
NOECLIFFE (BET. C. B., M.A.). Paver's marriage licenses. Yorks. 

Arch. Jour. xii. 269-284, 429-432. 
NOEEIS (HUGH). The place-name "Frome." Somerset Arch, and 

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Celtic myth and saga. Folklore, iv. 365-387. 

OLDEN (REV. T.). On the burial-place of St. Patrick. Proc. Eoy. 

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OLIVEE (ANDREW, A. B.I. B. A.). Notes on English monumental 

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OLIVEE (GEORGE). Evesham and its churches. Worcester Archit. 

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O'LooNEY (BEIAN). On an old Irish MS. found in co. Clare. Proc. 

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O'BEILLY (PEOF. J. P.) Bemarks on certain passages in Capt. 

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PAPWORTH, Sir William Chambers ; concerning some of his works. 

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PATTERSON (CLARA M.). A few children's games. Belfast Nat. 

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PEAL (S. E.). On the " Morong " as possibly a relic of pre-marriage 

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The Descent of the Manors of Pirton and Haseley. 

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Notices manorial and ecclesiastical of the parish of 

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Aberdeenshire : Crumble. 

Accounts : Dorman, see" Church wardens, 

Adrian IV. : Crownan. 

-Ethelbald : Latvrence. 

Africa: Elliot. 

Almshouses : Currey. 

Anglo-Saxon remains : Payne. 

Antrim : Smith. 

Appleby : Hope, Leach. 

Aran Islands : Haddon. 

Architectural antiquities : 

Ecclesiastical : Sell, Browne, Fowler, 
Hodgei, Irvine, Prendergast, PucJcle, 
Spiers, Sykes, Westropp, Williams. 
Irish : Beckley. 
Saxon : Nisbeit. 
Coped Stones : Langdon. 
Irish mud : Beckley. 

Arden : Fr.tton. 

Armada, Spanish : O'Reilly. 

Armour : Cosson, Dillon. 

Art : Andre, Hartshorne, Healy, 
Phillips, see Frescoes, Ironwork, 
Panels, Pictures, Portraits, Tapes- 

Astley : Bird. 

Astrolabes : Head. 

Athens : Head. 

Australia : Cooper. 

Balochi Tales : Dames. 

Barrows : Blackmore, Wildridge. 

Barton : Davis. 

Beaconsfield : Summers. 

Beardsall : Kerry. 

Becket (Thomas a) : Russell. 

Bedfordshire, see Eaton Bray. 

Bedfont: Ebbleivhite. 

Belfast : Bigger. 

Bellfounders : Hope 

Bells: Whitehead. 

Berkeleys : BarJcly. 

Berkshire : Berks, Birch, see Bisham, 
Eton, Reading, Swallowfield, Wal- 
lingf ord . 

Beverley : Leach. 

Bibliography : Atkinson, Birch, Blake- 
way, Brushfield, Church, Dredge, 
Ellis, Green, James, Leach, 
O'Looney, O'Reilly, Phear, Pollock, 
Raven, Ray, Rowe, Rye, Stokes, 

Bibracte : G rover. 

Birling: Whitley. 

Birmingham : Hope. 

Bisham : Hone. 

Blanchland : Johnson. 

Borneo : Hose. 

Braintree : Kemvorthy. 

Bronze strigil : Raven. 

Brooke family : Sykes. 

Buckinghamshire : Parker, see Beacons- 
field, Edlesborough. 

Buda-Pest : Lewis. 

Burton : Chalmers. 

Caerleon : Brock. 

Caerwent : Brock. 

Calais : Dillon. 

Cambridge : Harrison, Huglies. 

Cambridgeshire : Ridgeway, see Cam- 
bridge, Eh, Swatt'ham Prior. 

Candleholders : Buick. 

Canterbury : Robertson. 

Cardiff : Brock. 

Carlisle : Bower, Ferguson t Haverfield, 
Russell, Wilson. 

Carrickfergus : Young. 

Castle Bromwich : Bateman. 

Chambers (Sir William) : Papivorih. 

Charters : Kerry. 

Checkendon : Pear man 

Cheltenham : Rouse. 

Chester : Williams. 

Chichester : Hove. 


Chiltern : Pearman. 

Chinese : Douglas. 

Chollerford : Holmes. 

Churchwardens' accounts : Hayward, 

Cirencester : Bowly, Fuller. 

Clare : O'Looney, Westropp, seeKillaloe. 

Clifton : Ferguson. 

Coate : Passmore. 

Cobberley : Barkly. 

Colchester : Laver. 

Constantinople : Curtis, Spiers. 

Conventicles : Webb. 

Coptic texts, etc. : Atkinson, Budge. 

Cornwall : Bell Langdon, Sincock 
see Launceston, Lewannick, Otter- 
ham, Trewortha. 

Corn worthy : Harris. 

Costume : Clark. 

Covehithe : Raven. 

Crabhouse Nunnery : Bateson. 

Craniology : Browne, Cooper, Duckworth, 
Frazer, Haddon, Whitley. 

Crich Hill : Arnold- Bemrose. 

Cricklade : Pouting. 

Crosses : Beloe, Calverley, Hayivard, 

Cucklington : Weaver. 

Cuellar (Capt.) : O'Reilly. 

Cumberland : Ferguson, see Carlisle, 

Danes : Taylor. 

Dartmoor: Phillips, Whale, Worth. 

Deepdale : Ward. 

Derby Abbey : Kerry. 

Derbyshire : Carrington, see Beardsall, 
Crich Hill, Deepdale, Norbury, 
Peak, Staveley. 

Detling : Cave Brown. 

Devizes : Waylen. 

Devonshire : Collier, Dredge, Ehvor- 
thy, Jones, Rowe, Worth, see Corn- 
worthy, Dartmoor, Exeter, Mar- 
wood, Syon Abbey,Torbay, Torquay. 

Dialect : Armfield, Collier, Dartnell, 

Domesday : Phear, Pollock, Willis- 

Domestic appliances : Cowper. 

Doncaster : Fairbank. 

Donhead St. Mary : Short. 

Dovecots : Watkins. 

Dover : Puckle, Robertson. 

Down : Lockwood-, see Dromore. 

Drama : Bolingbroke, Ordish. 

Dromore : Dickson. 

Dublin : Frazer. 

Durham, see Lanchester, Neasham. 

Earthworks : Bigger, Cole, Coivper, 
Hughes, Martin, Ridgeway, Wild- 

Eastbourne: Atkinson. 

Eaton Bray : Davys. 

Ecclesiastical antiquities : Allen, Andre, 
Arnold, Atkinson, Bell, Beloe, 
Bateman, Boyes, Brassington, 
Brock, Browne, Brownlow, Burns, 
Cheales, Church, Compton, Cooper, 
Cox, Grossman, Donnelly, Dorling, 
Fox, Frampton, Fuller, Glynne, 
Grantley, Hancock, Healy, Hodges, 
Hopper, Leach, Levett, Oliver, 
Rutton, ^enables, Waller, Webb, 

Ecclesfield : Hoivorth. 

Edlesborough : Davys. 

Edward III. : Greenstreet, Lawrence. 

Edward YI. : Hodgson. 

Egyptian antiquities : Macalister, see 
" Coptic." 

Elizabeth (Queen) : Maclean. 

Ely : Atkinson. 

Essex: Armfield, see Braintree, Col- 
chester, Hatfield Broad Oak, 
Hedingham, Layer Marney, South- 

Eton : James. 

Evesham : Oliver. 

Exeter: Bnishfield. 

Faintree : Purton. 

Faversham : Giraud, Payne. 

Finns : Abercromby. 

Flodden Field : Bates. 

Folklore : Abercromby, Andre, Ball, 
Buckland, Codrington, Craigie, 
Crombie, Dames, Douglas, Duncan, 
Dyer, Elliot, Fitzgerald, Fretton, 
Gaye, Godden, Gomme, Gray, 
Haddon, Hartland, Hastie, Jacobs, 
Lang, Lewis, Ordish, Patterson, 
Peacock, Peal, Rhys, Robinson, 
Roth, Rouse, Stokes, Yeats, 

Frescoes : James. 

Friends, Society of: Phillips. 

Friskney : Cheales. 

Froxfleld : Money. 

Furness : Cowper. 

Galway, see Aran Islands. 
Grarniangabis : Haverfield, HooppelL 


Genealogy and family history : Barkla, 
JBurtchaell, Clark, Fletcher, Gough, 
Groves, Harpley, Haslewood, Hone, 
Jones, Langley, Layard, Pearman, 
Punchard, StocJcer, Sykes, Wad- 
more, Watney, Windeatt. 

Geraldines, the : Burtchaell. 

Gipsies : Griffiths. 

Glamorganshire : Allen, see Cardiff, St. 

Glass, Church : Waller. 

Gleastoii Castle : Cowper. 

Glencree: Le Fanu. 

Glendalough : Donnelly. 

Gloucestershire: Taylor, see Cirencester, 
Cheltenham, Clifton, Cobberley, 
Win chcombe. 

Goughs of Myddle : Gougli. 

Greece : Dyer, Read. 

Hackney : Ward. 

Haddon Hall : Carrington. 

Hampshire : Attree, see Barton, Lee-on- 

the-Solent, New Forest, Kowner, 

Haseley : Pearman. 
Hatfield Broad Oak : G-alpin. 
Hedingham : Hayivard. 
Henry III. : Sincock. 
Henry VIII. : Hodgson. 
Heraldry : Bradley, Hope. 
Hermitages : Kingsford. 
Hertfordshire : Evans, see Ivinghoe, St. 


Heversham : Calverley. 
High Ercall : Vane. 
Holnicote : Hancock. 
Huguenots : Beaufort, Layard, Maguire. 
Hull : Hope, Sykes. 

Icelandic Folklore : Craigie. 

Ilton : Gardiner. 

India: Ball. 

Indo-Scythians : Cunningham. 

Inscriptions : Blair, Bowly, Ferguson, 

Haverfield, Hooppell, Langdon, 


Ironwork : Hart. 
Isle of Wight, see Osborne. 
Isurium : Leadman. 
Ivinghce : Fowler. 

James I. : Maclean. 
James II. : Frazer. 
Japanese : Chamberlain. 
Jersey : Dunlop. 

Katherine, Q.ueen : Garnet t. 

Kells : Healy. 

Kent : Duncan, Greenstreet, see Canter- 
bury, Detling, Dover, Faversham, 
Leeds, Medway, New Romney, 
Northfleet, Preston, Sandgate, Sand- 
wich, Seal, Shorne, Tihnanstone< 
Trottescliffe, West Wickhani. 

Kerry : Deane. 

Kilkenny : Burtchaell, see Ullard. 

Killadreenan : Donnelly. 

Killaloe : Westropp. 

Kingston-upon-Hull : Hope, Sykes. 

Lancashire : Ferguson. 

Lanchester : Blair, Haverfield, Hoop- 


Langley family : Lane/ley. 
Language : Boyd, Bridges, Ray, see 

Dialect, Place names. 
Launceston : Peter. 
Lawsuits : Hardy. 
Layer Marney : Boys. 
Leamington : Stanley. 
Lee-on-the-Solent : Sobinson. 
Leeds (Kent) ; Cave-Browne. 
Leicestershire : Bellairs, see Lockingtou. 

Leigh, the : Ponting. 
Leigh Place : Watney. 
Leitrim : Duncan, Peacock. 
Lepers House : Stanley. 
Lewannick, Langdon. 
Lichfield: Cox. 
Lincoln : Frazer, Venables. 
Lincolnshire, see Friskney, Lincoln. 
Lisnagarrie : Cardwell. 
Lockington : Fletcher. 
London : Cuming, Papworth, Bound, 
Lovelace family : Pearman. 
Ludlow : Jones. 

Manorial customs : Fretton, 

Kerry, Maclean, Parker, Pearman^ 
Purton, Watney, Worth. 

Marriage licences : Bax, Norclijfe. 

Marton : Wildridge. 

Marwood : Dredge. 

Meath, see Kells. 

Meaux : Cox. 

Medway : Levett. 

Melanesian Folk-Tales : Codrlngton. 

Mentone : Evans. 

Merchants' Marks : Davis. 

Middlesex, see Bedfont, Hackney. 

Monasterboice : Healy. 

Monmouth, see Caerleon. 



Monuments, effigies, tombs : Allen, 
Boicer, Clarke, Deane, Galpin, 
Gardiner, Haverfield, Hoivorth, 
Manning, Oliver, Pickance, Robert- 
son, Stanley, Ward. 

Moore, Sir John : Baildon. 

Mountsorrell : Hiigel. 

Moylarg : Buick. 

Municipal insignia : Hope. 

Myddle : Gough. 

Nagyr : Duckivorth. 
Nar : Coulton. 
Neasham Priory : Grossman. 
Newcastle : Boyle, Knotvles. 
New Forest : Griffiths. 
New Hebrides : Ray. 
New Romney : Button. 
Norbury : Clarice. 

Norfolk : Bolingbroke, Sye, see Crab- 
house, Nar, Norwich. 
Northfleet : Arnold. 
Northamptonshire, see Peterborough. 
Northumberland, see Blanchland, New- 
castle, Wallsend. 
Northumbria : Grantley. 
Norwich : Fox, Hudson, Raven. 
Numismatics : 

jEthelbald : Lawrence. 

Arsacidse : Hapson. 

Britain : Howorth. 

Edward III. : Laivrence. 

Flemish : Montague. 

Greek : Baker, Greemvell, Head, 
Hill, Howorth, Wroth. 

James II. : Frazer. 

Medals and tokens : Evans, Frazer, 

Norman Kings : Packe. 

Norway : Evans. 

Romans, King of the : Weber. 

Saxon : Evans, Grantley. 

OflTa's Dyke : Hughes. 
Ogam stone : Langdon. 
Old Sarum : Blackmore. 
Osborne : Groves. 
Otterham: Maclean. 
Oxford, see Checkendon, Chilteru, 
Haseley, Pirton. 

Paracelsus: Weler. 

Paintings : Weaver, see " Frescoes." 

Palma : Prendergast. 

Panels : Bensley, Hope, 

Pardon : Baildon. 

Pardon (Thomas) : Purton. 

Parish clerks : Giraud. 

Parish registers : Bickley, Sankey, Vane, 

Whitehead, Wilson. 
Parliament : Scott. 
Peak : Carrington. 

Penny (John) Bishop of Carlisle : Wil- 

Peterborough : Irvine. 
Picture, old Saxon : Harrison. 
Pirton : Pearman. 

Place names : Biirnard, Candler, 
Coleman, Coulton, Hickson, Morris 
Nor r is. 

Pontesbury : Fletcher. 
Portraits : Scharf, Weber. 
Poslingford : Jarvis. 
Powell (Rob.) : Phillips. 
Prehistoric antiquities : Dickson. 

Burials : Dickson, Evans. 

Crannogs : Buick. 

Mud architecture : Simp-ton. 

Neolithic and bronze age : Lasham. 

Paleeolitbic : Tylor. 

Stone circles : Barclay, Lewis, Pass- 

Stone forts : Westropp. 

Stone implements : Knoivles, Robin- 
son, Short. 

Stone rows : Worth. 

Timber platform : Ferguson. 
Preston : Dowker. 
Prince family : Jones. 
Privy Council : Hodgson. 
Protectorate : Scott. 
Punchard family : Punchard. 

Ramsbury : Webb. 
Ratisbon : Hartshorne. 
Reading : Crawfurd. 
Registers : Bateson. 
Reigate : Pickance. 
Ring-dial : Bead. 
Rohan (Dae de) : Layard. 
Roman antiquities : Brown, Ferguson, 
Haverfield, Lambert, Leadman 
Money, Ward. 

Roman remains : Atkinson, BellaArs, 
Blair, Bowly, Brock, Dowker. 

Bibracte : Grover. 

Chester : Williams. 

Chollerford: Holmes. 

Colchester : Laver. 

Dover : Puckle. 

Lanchester : Blair, Haverfield, Hoop- 

Silchester : Fox. 
Romans, King of the : Weber. 
Rowner : Prideaux-Brune. 



St. Albans : Hardy, James. 

St. Fagans : David. 

St. John tlie Baptist : Andre, Harts- 

St. Mary Church : Srownlow. 

Salisbury : Kingslury. 

Sandgate Castle : Button. 

Sandwich : Dorman. 

Sarum: Chitterluck, Dorling, Well. 

Scotland : Cooper, Russell. 

Scott (Sir Eichard) : Howorth. 

Sculpture : 

St. John's Head : Hartshorne. 

Seal (Kent) : Frampton. 

Seals : Brassington, Hope, Wyon. 

Sedgefield Church: Hodges. 

Selattyn : Bulkeley- Owen. 

Selby Abbey : Hodges. 

Sharington : ClarJc. 

Shorne : Arnold. 

Shottesbrok (John de) : Hone. 

Shrewsbury : Blakeway, Fisher. 

Shropshire : Fletcher, Phillips, see 
Astley, Faintree, High Ercall, Lang- 
ley, Lichfield, Ludlow, Myddle, 
Pontesbury, Selattyn, Shrewsbury. 

Silchester : Fox. 

Silkstone : Sykes. 

Smythe family : Stacker. 

Smythe (Sir Thomas) : Wadmore. 

Somerset, see Cucklington, Holnicote, 
Ilton, Somerton, Wells, Witham. 

Somerton : Hay ward. 

South am : Fretton. 

Southminster : Pritchett. 

Staley : Johnson. 

Staveley : Coleman. 

Stewards accounts : Carrington. 

Stone coffins : Fielder. 

Stonehenge : Barclay. 

Sudeley Castle : Oarnett. 

Suffolk : Haslewood, Hopper, see Cove- 
hithe, Poslingford. 

.Surnames : Hickson. 

Surrey : Bax, Cooper, Crisp, Lasham, 
see Leigh Place, Reigate. 

Sussex, see Birling, Chichester, East- 

S waff ham : Atkinson. 

Swallowfield : Russell. 

Syon Abbey : Burns. 

Szekely Tales : G-aye. 

Talley Abbey : Williams. 
Tapestry : Kerry. 

Tasrnanians : Tylor. 
Taylor (Francis) : Purton. 
Tilmanstone : Frampton. 
Tipperary : Browne. 
Torbay: Karke.ek. 
Torquay: Worth. 
Torres Straits : Ray. 
Traders' signs : Cuming. 
Trewortha : Baring- Gould. 
Trottescliffe : Frampton, Robertson. 
Tucker (John) : Harris. 

Ullard : Vigors. 

Venice : Hell, Layard, Spiers. 
Vitruvius : Brown. 
Yyne : Chute. 

Wales : Compton, Foulkes, Rhys. 

Wallingford : Field. 

Wallsend: Blair. 

Warwick : Kemp. 

Warwickshire : Bickley, see Arden, 
Birmingham, Castle Bromwich, 
Leamington, Southam, Warwick. 

WelLs: Church, Crisp, Fielder, Gray, 
Hartland, Hilgel, Morris, Rhys. 

Westmorland : Ferguson, Whitehead, 
see Appleby. 

WestWickham: Waller. 

Westward : Wilson. 

Wicklow, see Grlendalough. 

Wills (the Australian explorer) : Win- 

Wills : Attree, Baker, Berks, Crisp, 
Fletcher, Manning, Monday. 

Wilton : Waylen. 

Wiltshire : Dartnell, Duncan, Waylen, see 
Coate, Cricklade, Devizes, Donhead 
St. Mary, Froxfieid, Old Sarum, 
Eamsbury, Salisbury, Sarum, 
Sharington, Stonehouse, Wilton. 

Winchcombe : Brock. 

Witham Priory : Elworthy. 

Worcestershire, see Evesham. 

Wragby : Sankey. 

Wurtemburg : Cosson. 

Yahgan : Bridges. 

Yorkshire : Ellis, Glynne, see Beverley, 
Marton, Selby, Silkstone, Wragby. 




DA Lancashire and Cheshire 

670 Antiquarian Society, 

L19L25 Manchester, Eng, 
v.12 Transactions